error vector magnitude
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Yazan Alkhlefat ◽  
Sevia Mahdaliza Idrus Sutan Nameh ◽  
Farabi M. Iqbal

Current and future wireless communication systems are designed to achieve the user’s demands such as high data rate and high speed with low latency and simultaneously to save bandwidth and spectrum. In 5G and 6G networks, a high speed of transmitting and switching is required for internet of things (IoT) applications with higher capacity. To achieve these requirements a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is considered as a wavelength converter to transmit a signal with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with subcarrier power modulation (OFDM-SPM). It exploits the subcarrier’s power in conventional OFDM block in order to send additional bits beside the normally transmitted bits. In this paper, we optimized the SOA’s parameters to have efficient wavelength conversion process. These parameters are included the injection current (IC) of SOA, power of pump and probe signals. A 7 Gbps OFDM-SPM signal with a millimeter waves (MMW) carrier of 80 GHz is considered for signal switching. The simulation results investigated and analyzed the performance of the designed system in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM), bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The optimum value of IC is 0.6 A while probe power is 9.45 and 8.9 dBm for pump power. The simulation is executed by virtual photonic integrated (VPI) software.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Zhongli Yi ◽  
Fuzhai Wang ◽  
Lianjie Jin ◽  
Yueying Zhan

Abstract In this study, we propose an application scheme of free space optical communication technology in INMARSAT, and propose a 1.12 Tbit/s coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization-multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) modulation technology. Based on optisystem software platform, the spectrum, bit error rate (BER), received power, error vector magnitude (EVM), and receiver sensitivity of the edge and middle channels of the system are analyzed. The simulation results show that the transmission rate and channel capacity of INMARSAT communication system are greatly improved by selecting the channel spacing and transmission environment reasonably.

Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Hassan Termos ◽  
Ali Nansour

This study focuses on a novel concept of transmitting of a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation by an electro-optical frequency up-conversion using a cascaded Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs) link. Furthermore, we conduct and compare the results obtained by simulations using the Virtual Photonics Inc. (VPI) (Berlin, Germany) simulator and real-world experiments. The design and operating regime peculiarities of the MZM used as a sampling up-converter mixer in a radio over fiber (RoF) system are also analyzed. Besides, the simulation and experimental results of static and dynamic characteristics of the MZM have approximately the same behavior. The conversion gain of the cascaded MZMs link is simulated over many mixing frequencies and it can decrease from 17.5 dB at 8.3 GHz to −4.5 dB at 39.5 GHz. However, in real world settings, it may decrease from 15.5 dB at 8.3 GHz to −6 dB at 39.5 GHz. The maximum frequency range is attained at 78.5 GHz for up-conversion through simulations. Error vector magnitude (EVM) values have been done to evaluate the performance of our system. An EVM of 16% at a mixing frequency of 39.5 GHz with a bit rate of 12.5 Gbit/s was observed with the considering sampling technique, while it reached 19% in real-world settings with a sampling frequency of 39.5 GHz and a bit rate of 12.5 Gbit/s.

Ravilla Dilli

AbstractFrequencies above 100 GHz are the promising frequency bands for 6G wireless communication systems because of the abundant unexplored and unused spectrum. The increasing global demand for ultra-high spectral efficiencies, data rates, speeds and bandwidths in next-generation wireless networks motivates the exploration of peak capabilities of massive MIMO (Multi–Input–Multi–Output) wireless access technology at THz bands (0.1–10 THz). The smaller wavelengths (order of microns) of these frequencies give an advantage of making high gain antennas with smaller physical dimensions and allows massive spatial multiplexing. This paper presents the design of ultra-massive MIMO (ultra-mMIMO) hybrid beamforming system for multi users and its feasibility to function at THz frequency bands. The functionality of the proposed system is verified at higher order modulation schemes to achieve higher spectral efficiencies using performance metrics that includes error vector magnitude, symbol constellations, and antenna array radiation beams. The performance results suggest to use a particular mMIMO antenna configuration based on number of independent data streams per user and strongly recommended to use higher number of data streams per user in order to achieve higher throughputs that satisfy the needs of 6G wireless systems. Also the performance of the proposed system at 0.14 THz is compared with mmWave systems that operate at 28 GHz and 73 GHz bands to justify the feasibility of the proposed work.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11624
Muhammad Usman Hadi ◽  
Muhammad Awais ◽  
Mohsin Raza ◽  
Muhammad Ikram Ashraf ◽  
Jian Song

This paper presents an experimental realization of multiband 5G new radio (NR) optical front haul (OFH) based radio over fiber (RoF) system using digital predistortion (DPD). A novel magnitude-selective affine (MSA) based DPD method is proposed for the complexity reduction and performance enhancement of RoF link followed by its comparison with the canonical piece wise linearization (CPWL), decomposed vector rotation method (DVR) and generalized memory polynomial (GMP) methods. Similarly, a detailed study is shown followed by the implementation proposal of novel neural network (NN) for DPD followed by its comparison with MSA, CPWL, DVR and GMP methods. In the experimental testbed, 5G NR standard at 20 GHz with 50 MHz bandwidth and flexible-waveform signal at 3 GHz with 20 MHz bandwidth is used to cover enhanced mobile broad band and small cells scenarios. A dual drive Mach Zehnder Modulator having two distinct radio frequency signals modulates a 1310 nm optical carrier using distributed feedback laser for 22 km of standard single mode fiber. The experimental results are presented in terms of adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR), error vector magnitude (EVM), number of estimated coefficients and multiplications. The study aims to identify those novel methods such as MSA DPD are a good candidate to deploy in real time scenarios for DPD in comparison to NN based DPD which have a slightly better performance as compared to the proposed MSA method but has a higher complexity levels. Both, proposed methods, MSA and NN are meeting the 3GPP Release 17 requirements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 3240-3248
Darun Kesrarat ◽  
Vorapoj Patanavijit

This paper presents the use of the inverse confidential technique on bilateral function with the territorial intensity-based optical flow to prove the effectiveness in noise resistance environment. In general, the image’s motion vector is coded by the technique called optical flow where the sequences of the image are used to determine the motion vector. But, the accuracy rate of the motion vector is reduced when the source of image sequences is interfered by noises. This work proved that the inverse confidential technique on bilateral function can increase the percentage of accuracy in the motion vector determination by the territorial intensity-based optical flow under the noisy environment. We performed the testing with several kinds of non-Gaussian noises at several patterns of standard image sequences by analyzing the result of the motion vector in a form of the error vector magnitude (EVM) and compared it with several noise resistance techniques in territorial intensity-based optical flow method.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (20) ◽  
pp. 6830
Munsu Jeon ◽  
Yejune Seo ◽  
Junghyun Cho ◽  
Changhyeong Lee ◽  
Jiyeon Jang ◽  

In this paper, an intuitive approach to assessing advantages of beamforming in 5G wireless communication is proposed as a novel try and practical demonstration of importance of alignment between the transmitter’s and receiver’s beams working in millimeter-wave frequency bands. Since the diffraction loss of millimeter-wave signals matters seriously in propagation, the effects of the misalignment and alignment between beams need to be checked for, which was conducted with a horn antenna and the 4 × 4 Butler matrix which mimic the relationship of the base station and handset antennas. Designing and using the microstrip-line and the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) Butler matrices, RF-to-RF wireless connectivity between the horn and the microstrip line beamformer as case 1 and the horn and the SIW beamformer as case 2, concerning the changing angle of the beam from either of the two Butler matrices, was tested, showing over 12 dB enhancement in received power. This direct electromagnetic link test was accompanied by examining 64-QAM constellations for beam-angle changing from −30° to +30° for the two cases, where the error vector magnitude in the QAM-diagram becomes less than 10% by beam-alignment for the changing angle.

Frequenz ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Priyadharshini Rajasekaran ◽  
Geetha Ganesan ◽  
Meenakshi Murugappan

Abstract Fiber-Wireless (Fi-Wi) networks play a crucial role in broadband wireless communication. A hybrid Fi-Wi architecture integrating Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) based Next-Generation Passive Optical Network (NGPON) with Long Term Evolution (LTE) is proposed that can provide a higher capacity to the mobile end users, thereby achieving scalability and mobility. Maximal length sequence (M-sequence) codes of code length 31 used can support six users. A simulation study is carried out for the proposed integrated architecture considering multiple users and multiple services, and the performance is analyzed in terms of the received Bit Error Rate (BER) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values. A high capacity of 160 Gbps and a spectral efficiency of 2–4 bps/Hz are achieved for the multi-user and multi-service links with six users.

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