blood mononuclear cells
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2022 ◽  
Eduard Otto Roos ◽  
William Mwangi ◽  
Wilhelm Gerner ◽  
Ryan Waters ◽  
John A Hammond

This multiplex staining panel was developed to differentiate cattle T cells into conventional (CD4 and CD8) and unconventional (γδ-TCR) subsets as well as their stage of differentiation and activation. The combination of CD45RO and CD62L allows the identification of naïve (TNaïve), central memory (TCM), effector memory (TEM) and terminal effector (TTE) T cells. Activated cattle T cells (TAV) can be identified by the cell surface expression of CD25. This panel was developed using cryopreserved cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tested on fresh as well as stimulated PBMCs. Therefore, this 8-colour, 10-parameter flow cytometry panel simultaneously identifies cattle TNaïve, TAV, TCM, TEM, TTE and γδ-TCR cells. This panel will improve our ability to examine T cell response to pathogens and vaccines in cattle including the potential to identify previously undescribed subpopulations. Furthermore, this panel can be readily optimised for other bovid species as many of these reagents are likely to cross react.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Caterina Selina Mildner ◽  
Dragan Copic ◽  
Matthias Zimmermann ◽  
Michael Lichtenauer ◽  
Martin Direder ◽  

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a result of cardiac non-perfusion and leads to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and compromised cardiac performance. Here, we showed that the secretome of γ-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCsec) improved heart function in a porcine AMI model and displayed beneficial long- and short-term effects. As an AMI is known to strongly affect gene regulation of the ischemia non-affected heart muscle and distal organs, we employed a transcriptomics approach to further study the immediate molecular events orchestrated using the PBMCsec in myocardium, liver, and spleen 24 h post ischemia. In the infarcted area, the PBMCsec mainly induced genes that were essential for cardiomyocyte function and simultaneously downregulated pro-inflammatory genes. Interestingly, genes associated with pro-inflammatory processes were activated in the transition zone, while being downregulated in the remote zone. In the liver, we observed a pronounced inhibition of immune responses using the PBMCsec, while genes involved in urea and tricarboxylic cycles were induced. The spleen displayed elevated lipid metabolism and reduced immunological processes. Together, our study suggested several types of pharmacodynamics by which the PBMCsec conferred immediate cardioprotection. Furthermore, our data supported the assumption that an AMI significantly affects distal organs, suggesting that a holistic treatment of an AMI, as achieved by PBMCsec, might be highly beneficial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Daniel de Luis ◽  
David Primo ◽  
Olatz Izaola ◽  
Rocío Aller

Background. Few studies have examined gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after a dietary intervention. Objective. Our study is aimed at evaluating in a pilot study the peripheral blood gene expression in obese patients after weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet. Design. A sample of 11 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome was enrolled. Biochemical, anthropometric parameters and microarray analysis were performed at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. Results. The mean age was 43.1 ± 6.3 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.6 ± 8.1  kg/m2. All the next improvements were statistically significant: body weight − 7.4 ± 1.9  kg, BMI - 2.5 ± 0.2  kg, fat mass − 5.7 ± 1.2  kg, waist circumference − 5.8 ± 1.2  cm, triglycerides − 17.4 ± 6.5  mg/dl, C-reactive protein − 3.1 ± 1.5  mg/dL, insulin − 2.1 ± 1.0  mUI/L, and HOMA-IR − 0.7 ± 0.2  units. We identified 634 differentially expressed genes: 262 genes with relative higher expression levels and 372 with lower expression levels. Cluster analysis showed 35 genes in nutritional disease and 17 genes in endocrine system. The most relevant gene was thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and this gene was overexpressed, and the next genes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), caveolin protein 1 (CAV1) and solute carrier family type 12 (SLLC12A3), soluble carrier family type 12 (SLLC12A3), beta 3 receptor (ADRB3), and glutamate receptor ionotropic N methyl D aspartate 2 A (GRIN2A) were all underexpressed. Conclusion. In PBMC from obese patients after a diet with a Mediterranean pattern, the expression of 634 genes, of the endocrine system and of nutritional disease, is modified.

Spencer C. Cushen ◽  
Contessa A. Ricci ◽  
Jessica L. Bradshaw ◽  
Talisa Silzer ◽  
Alexandra Blessing ◽  

Background Circulating cell‐free mitochondrial DNA (ccf‐mtDNA) is a damage‐associated molecular pattern that reflects cell stress responses and tissue damage, but little is known about ccf‐mtDNA in preeclampsia. The main objectives of this study were to determine (1) absolute concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA in plasma and mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and (2) forms of ccf‐mtDNA transport in blood from women with preeclampsia and healthy controls. In addition, we sought to establish the association between aberrance in circulating DNA‐related metrics, including ccf‐mtDNA and DNA clearance mechanisms, and the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia using bootstrapped penalized logistic regression. Methods and Results Absolute concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA were reduced in plasma from women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls ( P ≤0.02), while mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not differ between groups ( P >0.05). While the pattern of reduced ccf‐mtDNA in patients with preeclampsia remained, DNA isolation from plasma using membrane lysis buffer resulted in 1000‐fold higher ccf‐mtDNA concentrations in the preeclampsia group ( P =0.0014) and 430‐fold higher ccf‐mtDNA concentrations in the control group ( P <0.0001). Plasma from women with preeclampsia did not induce greater Toll‐like receptor‐9–induced nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain enhancer of activated B cells‐dependent responses in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing the human TLR‐9 gene ( P >0.05). Penalized regression analysis showed that women with preeclampsia were more likely to have lower concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA as well as higher concentrations of nuclear DNA and DNase I compared with their matched controls. Conclusions Women with preeclampsia have aberrant circulating DNA dynamics, including reduced ccf‐mtDNA concentrations and DNA clearance mechanisms, compared with gestational age–matched healthy pregnant women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 11
Isabelle Williams ◽  
Sumeet Pandey ◽  
Wolfram Haller ◽  
Hein Q. Huynh ◽  
Alicia Chan ◽  

Background:  Blockade of tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is effective in patients with Crohn’s Disease but has been associated with infection risk and neurological complications such as demyelination. Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal storage disorder presenting in childhood with neurological deterioration, liver damage and respiratory infections. Some NPC1 patients develop severe Crohn’s disease. Our objective was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of anti-TNF in NPC1 patients with Crohn’s disease. Methods: Retrospective data on phenotype and therapy response were collected in 2019-2020 for the time period 2014 to 2020 from patients in the UK, France, Germany and Canada with genetically confirmed NPC1 defects and intestinal inflammation. We investigated TNF secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with NPC1 inhibitor in response to bacterial stimuli. Results: NPC1 inhibitor treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) show significantly increased TNF production after lipopolysaccharide or bacterial challenge providing a rationale for anti-TNF therapy. We identified 4 NPC1 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD)-like intestinal inflammation treated using anti-TNF therapy (mean age of onset 8.1 years, mean treatment length 27.75 months, overall treatment period 9.25 patient years). Anti-TNF therapy was associated with reduced gastrointestinal symptoms with no apparent adverse neurological events. Therapy improved intestinal inflammation in 4 patients. Conclusions: Anti-TNF therapy appears safe in patients with NPC1 and is an effective treatment strategy for the management of intestinal inflammation in these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
Vahdat Poortahmasebi ◽  
Seyed Moayed Alavian ◽  
Azam Ghaziasadi ◽  
Arezou Azadi ◽  
Mohsen Nasiritoosi ◽  

Background: Several studies have revealed that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) exists in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). It remains poorly understood whether HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) can emerge in PBMCs of patients with different stages of HBV infection. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the detection of HBV DNA and quantification and presence of cccDNA within PBMC from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 participants (30 CHB patients, 30 cirrhosis patients, 30 HCC patients, and 30 healthy controls) from Tehran, Iran. HBV serological markers were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PBMCs of all individuals were assayed for HBV DNA detection, quantification, and the presence of cccDNA. Results: Of 90 HBV patients, 58 (64.4%) were positive for HBV DNA in PBMCs. HBV DNA was detected in PBMCs isolated from 13/30 CHB, 20/30 cirrhosis, and 25/30 HCC patients. In addition, 6 (20%) CHB, 13 (43.3%) cirrhosis, and 16 (15.3%) HCC patients were cccDNA positive. The HBV viral loads in serums were statistically higher than the HBV viral loads of PBMCs (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between HBV DNA loads in serums and PBMCs of patients. Moreover, HBV DNA quantity of serums and PBMCs showed a significant association in terms of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status. Conclusions: HBV quantity in PBMCs correlated with serum HBV viral loads. HBV genomes in PBMCs may be a risk factor for HBV disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Wenyu Xiang ◽  
Shuai Han ◽  
Cuili Wang ◽  
Hongjun Chen ◽  
Lingling Shen ◽  

Acute rejection (AR) is closely associated with renal allograft dysfunction. Here, we utilised RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatic methods to characterise the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with acute renal allograft rejection. Pretransplant blood samples were collected from 32 kidney allograft donors and 42 corresponding recipients with biopsies classified as T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR, n = 18), antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR, n = 5), and normal/non-specific changes (non-AR, n = 19). The patients with TCMR and ABMR were assigned to the AR group, and the patients with normal/non-specific changes (n = 19) were assigned to the non-AR group. We analysed RNA-Seq data for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and then gene ontology (GO) analysis, Reactome, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), protein—protein interaction (PPI) network, and cell-type enrichment analysis were utilised for bioinformatics analysis. We identified DEGs in the PBMCs of the non-AR group when compared with the AR, ABMR, and TCMR groups. Pathway and GO analysis showed significant inflammatory responses, complement activation, interleukin-10 (IL-10) signalling pathways, classical antibody-mediated complement activation pathways, etc., which were significantly enriched in the DEGs. PPI analysis showed that IL-10, VEGFA, CXCL8, MMP9, and several histone-related genes were the hub genes with the highest degree scores. Moreover, IPA analysis showed that several proinflammatory pathways were upregulated, whereas antiinflammatory pathways were downregulated. The combination of NFSF14+TANK+ANKRD 33 B +HSPA1B was able to discriminate between AR and non-AR with an AUC of 92.3% (95% CI 82.8–100). Characterisation of PBMCs by RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis demonstrated gene signatures and biological pathways associated with AR. Our study may provide the foundation for the discovery of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of acute renal allograft rejection.

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