scholarly journals Itaconate and derivatives reduce interferon responses and inflammation in influenza A virus infection

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.

2002 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 126-131 ◽  
Teresa Krakauer

ABSTRACT Staphylococcal exotoxins (SE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate cells of the immune system to produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines which mediate septic shock and acute lung inflammation. A coculture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and pulmonary A549 epithelial cells was used to investigate inflammatory responses triggered by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and LPS. The levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, gamma interferon-inducible protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and RANTES were enhanced by 3.8-, 4.2-, 3.1-, 8.9-, 2-, and 2.9-fold, respectively, in cocultures of SEB-stimulated cells compared to in SEB-stimulated PBMC. In LPS-stimulated cocultures, only MCP-1 and RANTES levels were increased. These data suggest that the modulation of specific cytokines and chemokines is dependent on the stimulus and that there is bidirectional interaction between PBMC and lung epithelial cells to influence the immune response to these different stimuli.

1997 ◽  
Vol 98 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-94 ◽  
Clodoveo Ferri ◽  
Francesca Lo Jacono ◽  
Monica Monti ◽  
Francesco Caracciolo ◽  
Luca La Civita ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nana Li ◽  
Nafiseh Saghafi ◽  
Zahra Ghaneifar ◽  
Seyed Abdorahim Rezaee ◽  
Houshang Rafatpanah ◽  

VitD3 may contribute to a successful pregnancy through modulation of immune responses, so VitD3 deficiency may have a role in the immunopathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). However, the mechanisms of immunomodulatory actions of VitD3 in decreasing the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion have not been understood well.Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of 1,25VitD3 on IL-25 and related cytokines of Th17 cells including IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-23 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy women as a control group and women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.Method: Isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed from peripheral blood of the subjects of the studied groups (20 women with URSA as a case group, and 20 control women). The effects of 1,25VitD3 (50 nM, for 24 h) on the studied parameters were evaluated and were compared to the positive and negative controls in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the percentages of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells. For gene expression measurement and cytokines assay, real-time PCR and ELISA were carried out.Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in women with URSA was considerably higher than in the control group. IL-25 mRNA and protein levels in cultured PBMCs from women with URSA were lower than the controls. 1,25VitD3 increased IL-25 expressions at both the protein and mRNA levels in PBMCs from women with URSA relative to the control group. Additionally, 1,25VitD3 treatment not only significantly decreased the percentage of Th17 cells frequency but also reduced expressions of IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-23 in PBMCs from women with URSA.Conclusion: 1,25VitD3 may diminish inflammatory responses cells via downregulation of IL-25 expression. It could be an interesting subject for future researches in the field of the immunopathology of URSA to identify molecular pathways in URSA treatment.

2020 ◽  
Behnoosh Miladpour ◽  
Atefeh Seghatoleslam ◽  
mehdi kalani ◽  
Mehran Erfani ◽  
peyman Nowrouzi-Sohrabi

Abstract Background: Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is a newly discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and it has not been previously studied in the inflammatory responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 CAD patients and 15 non-CAD (NCAD) individuals. PVT1 expression in PBMCs of the participants was measured, using real-time PCR. Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-22 and MMP-9 in the plasma and supernatant of the cultured PBMCs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was assessed, using flowcytometry and ELISA.Results: An increased expression of PVT1 was observed in untreated PBMCs of CAD patients compared to the NCAD group. There was a significant up-regulation of PVT1 after LPS treatment in PBMCs of both groups. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were found to be higher in CAD patients compared to the controls. The level of IL-10 and IL-22 production from the non-treated PBMCs of CAD was significantly lower compared to the NCAD group. In the total examined population, PVT1 expression was negatively correlated with IL-10 secretion. The results also showed a significant negative correlation between PVT1 expression and IL-10 produced by untreated cells. Conclusions: PVT1 expression is increased in PBMCs of CAD patients and this increased expression could be associated with decreased IL-10 production from PBMCs of these patients.

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