When working towards regulation of supersonic aviation, a comprehensive understanding of the global climate effect of supersonic aviation is required in order to develop future regulatory issues. Such research requires a comprehensive overview of existing scientific literature having explored the climate effect of aviation. This review article provides an overview on earlier studies assessing the climate effects of supersonic aviation, comprising non-CO2 effects. An overview on the historical evaluation of research focussing on supersonic aviation and its environmental impacts is provided, followed by an overview on concepts explored and construction of emission inventories. Quantitative estimates provided for individual effects are presented and compared. Subsequently, regulatory issues related to supersonic transport are summarised. Finally, requirements for future studies, e.g., in emission scenario construction or numerical modelling of climate effects, are summarised and main conclusions discussed.
In order to decrease the emitted airframe noise by a two-dimensional high-lift configuration during take-off and landing performance, a morphing airfoil has been designed through a shape design optimisation procedure starting from a baseline airfoil (NLR 7301), with the aim of emulating a high-lift configuration in terms of aerodynamic performance. A methodology has been implemented to accomplish such aerodynamic improvements by means of the compressible steady RANS equations at a certain angle of attack, with the objective of maximising its lift coefficient up to equivalent values regarding the high-lift configuration, whilst respecting the imposed structural constraints to guarantee a realistic optimised design. For such purposes, a gradient-based optimisation through the discrete adjoint method has been undertaken. Once the optimised airfoil is achieved, unsteady simulations have been carried out to obtain surface pressure distributions along a certain time-span to later serve as the input data for the aeroacoustic prediction framework, based on the Farassat 1A formulation, where the subsequent results for both configurations are post-processed to allow for a comparative analysis. Conclusively, the morphing airfoil has proven to be advantageous in terms of aeroacoustics, in which the noise has been reduced with respect to the conventional high-lift configuration for a comparable lift coefficient, despite being hampered by a significant drag coefficient increase due to stall on the morphing airfoil’s trailing edge.
This paper studies the multi-source disturbances attenuation problem on the yaw motion of unmanned aerial helicopter with a variable-speed rotor. The yaw motion subsystem dominated by an electrically-driven tail rotor is firstly introduced, and its trajectory accuracy requires particularly close attention. To this end, we establish a fourth-order yaw error dynamic equation; subsequently, a nonlinear robust control scheme based on optimal H∞ principle is developed, consisting of laws of virtual functions, parameter estimation and a compensation signal. The novelty of this scheme lies in unifying the techniques to deal with the uncertain parameters, noise perturbations, actuator output fault and external airflow turbulence into a simple framework. Stability analysis guarantees that the yaw closed-loop system has the predefined performance of disturbance suppression in the sense of a finite L2-gain. Comparison results with the extended state observer based backstepping controller verify the effectiveness and superior performance of proposed scheme in an aircraft prototype.
In this paper, detailed flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of a jet impingement system with extended jet holes are experimentally and numerically studied. The jet holes in the jet plate present an inline array of 16 × 5 rows in the streamwise (i.e., the crossflow direction) and spanwise directions, where the streamwise and spanwise distances between adjacent holes, which are normalized by the jet hole diameter (xn/d and yn/d), are 8 and 5, respectively. The jets impinge onto a smooth target plate with a normalized distance (zn/d) of 3.5 apart from the jet plate. The jet holes are extended by inserting stainless tubes throughout the jet holes and the extended lengths are varied in a range of 1.0d–2.5d, depending on the jet position in the streamwise direction. The experimental data is obtained by using the transient thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique for wide operating jet Reynolds numbers of (1.0 × 104)–(3.0 × 104). The numerical simulations are well-validated using the experimental data and provide further insight into the flow physics within the jet impingement system. Comparisons with a traditional baseline jet impingement scheme show that the extended jet holes generate much higher local heat transfer levels and provide more uniform heat transfer distributions over the target plate, resulting in the highest improvement of approximately 36% in the Nusselt number. Although the extended jet hole configuration requires a higher pumping power to drive the flow through the impingement system, the gain of heat transfer prevails over the penalty of flow losses. At the same pumping power consumption, the extended jet hole design also has more than 10% higher heat transfer than the baseline scheme.
Pre-designed spacecraft plans suffer from failure due to the uncertain space environment. In this case, instead of spending a long time waiting for ground control to upload a feasible plan in order to achieve the mission goals, the spacecraft could repair the failed plan while executing another part of the plan. This paper proposes a method called Isolation and Repair Plan Failures (IRPF) for a spaceship with durable, concurrent, and resource-dependent actions. To enable the spacecraft to perform some actions when a plan fails, IRPF separates all defective actions from executable actions in the pre-designed plan according to causal analysis between the failure state and the established plan. Then, to address the competition between operation and repair during the partial execution of the plan, IRPF sets up several regulatory factors associated with the search process for a solution, and then repairs the broken plan within the limits of these factors. Experiments were carried out in simulations of a satellite and a multi-rover system. The results demonstrate that, compared with replanning and other plan-repair methods, IRPF creates an execution plan more quickly and searches for a recovery plan with fewer explored state nodes in a shorter period of time.
This study investigated a pre-cooled turbojet engine for a Mach 5 class hypersonic transport aircraft. The engine was demonstrated under takeoff and Mach 2 flight conditions, and a Mach 5 propulsion wind tunnel test is planned. The engine is composed of a pre-cooler, a core engine, and an afterburner. The engine was tested under simulated Mach 4 conditions using an air supply facility. High-temperature air under high pressure was supplied to the engine components through an airflow control valve and an orifice flow meter, and liquid hydrogen was supplied to the pre-cooler and the core engine. The results confirmed that the starting sequence of the engine components was effective under simulated Mach 4 conditions using liquid hydrogen fuel. The pre-cooling effect caused no damage to the rotating parts of the core engine in the experiment.
An improved synthetic eddy method (SEM) is proposed in this paper for generating the boundary layer at the inlet of a computational domain via direct numerical simulation. The improved SEM modified the definition of the radius and the velocities of the eddies according to the distance of the eddies from the wall in the synthetic region. The regeneration location of the eddies is also redefined. The simulation results show that the improved SEM generates turbulent fluctuations that closely match the DNS results of the experiments. The skin friction coefficient of the improved SEM recovers much faster and has lower dimensionless velocity at the outer of the boundary layer than that of the traditional SEM.
Aviation has been hit hard by COVID-19, with passengers stranded in remote destinations, airlines filing for bankruptcy, and uncertain demand scenarios for the future. Travel bubbles are discussed as one possible solution, meaning countries which have successfully constrained the spread of COVID-19 gradually increase their mutual international flights, returning to a degree of normality. This study aims to answer the question of whether travel bubbles are indeed observable in flight data for the year 2020. We take the year 2019 as reference and then search for anomalies in countries’ flight bans and recoveries, which could possibly be explained by having successfully implemented a travel bubble. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to try to address the identification of COVID-19 travel bubbles in real data. Our methodology and findings lead to several important insights regarding policy making, problems associated with the concept of travel bubbles, and raise interesting avenues for future research.
The airfoil is the prime component of flying vehicles. For low-speed flights, low Reynolds number airfoils are used. The characteristic of low Reynolds number airfoils is a laminar separation bubble and an associated drag rise. This paper presents a framework for the design of a low Reynolds number airfoil. The contributions of the proposed research are twofold. First, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is designed for the aerodynamic coefficient prediction of low Reynolds number airfoils. Data generation is discussed in detail and XFOIL is selected to obtain aerodynamic coefficients. The performance of the CNN is evaluated using different learning rate schedulers and adaptive learning rate optimizers. The trained model can predict the aerodynamic coefficients with high accuracy. Second, the trained model is used with a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) for multi-objective optimization of the low Reynolds number airfoil at a specific angle of attack. A similar optimization is performed using NSGA-II directly calling XFOIL, to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients. The Pareto fronts of both optimizations are compared, and it is concluded that the proposed CNN can replicate the actual Pareto in considerably less time.
Landing on a moving platform is an essential requirement to achieve high-performance autonomous flight with various vehicles, including quadrotors. We propose an efficient and reliable autonomous landing system, based on model predictive control, which can accurately land in the presence of external disturbances. To detect and track the landing marker, a fast two-stage algorithm is introduced in the gimbaled camera, while a model predictive controller with variable sampling time is used to predict and calculate the entire landing trajectory based on the estimated platform information. As the quadrotor approaches the target platform, the sampling time is gradually shortened to feed a re-planning process that perfects the landing trajectory continuously and rapidly, improving the overall accuracy and computing efficiency. At the same time, a cascade incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control method is adopted to track the planned trajectory and improve robustness against external disturbances. We carried out both simulations and outdoor flight experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed landing system. The results show that the quadrotor can land rapidly and accurately even under external disturbance and that the terminal position, speed and attitude satisfy the requirements of a smooth landing mission.