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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi ◽  
A. AL-Enazy ◽  
E.A Huwait ◽  
A. Albukhari ◽  
S. Harakeh ◽  

Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to comorbidities and mortalities globally. The rational of current study was to evaluate the combined epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin as a potent antitumor agent as commentary agent for therapeutic protocol. The present study investigated the effect of epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) (150mg) and quercetin (200mg) at different proportions on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). Cell growth, colonogenic, Annexin V in addition cell cycle were detected in response to phytomolecules. Data obtained showed that, the colony formation was inhibited significantly in CRC starting from the lowest concentration tested of 10 µg/mL resulting in no colonies as visualized by a phase-contrast microscope. Data showed a significant elevation in the annexin V at 100 µg/mL EGCG(25.85%) and 150 µg/mL quercetin (48.35%). Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that this combination caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase at concentration of 100 µg/mL (72.7%) and 150 µg/mL (75.25%). The combined effect of epigallocatechin Gallate and quercetin exert antiproliferative activity against CRC, it is promising in alternative conventional chemotherapeutic agent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 422-426
Mi Li ◽  
Yanqin Ji

This study assesses the therapeutic effect of propranolol on cervical cancer and its mechanism. Propranolol’s effect on cervical cancer was evaluated by MTT, Western blotting, flow cytometry and colony formation. By searching Drug Bank and String, cGMP/PKG signaling might be downstream targets of propranolol for subsequent analysis. Our results found that propranolol could significantly inhibit Hela and SiHA cell vitality and clone formation in a dose dependent manner. Further, Annexin V-PE/7-AAD Apoptosis Detection assay showed that propranolol could increase Hela and SiHA cell apoptosis. Finally, propranolol attenuated the phosphorylation level of VASP at Ser239 which is critical for PKG activation. In conclusion, propranolol suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation via inhibition of cGMP/PKG signaling, which provides an affordable and effective method for cervical cancer remedy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-97
Harris Sultan ◽  
Prabakar Kumar Rao ◽  
Kisha Deslee Piggott ◽  
Michael A Paley ◽  

AIM: To evaluate differences in microparticle profiles in vitreous samples between diabetic and non-diabetic eyes undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS: Un-masked cross-sectional series of 34 eyes undergoing vitrectomy. Vitreous specimens were collected and processed to evaluate for membrane integrity (DAPI), apoptosis (Annexin-V), and endothelial-cell origin (V-Cadherin). A BD LSR II flow cytometer was used for analysis and standardized sub-micron-sized beads were used for size comparison. RESULTS: Thirty-four specimens underwent analysis. Greater levels of Annexin-V were found on microparticles from specimens in which blood had entered the vitreous (n=12) compared to those without blood (n=22; 52.3%±30.7% vs 19.6%±27.2%, P=0.002). Patients with diabetes having surgery with hemorrhage (n=7) had greater expression of Annexin-V than those without hemorrhage (n=8; 62.1%±31.7% vs 18.9%±20.9%, P=0.009). However, in patients with non-diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, the level of Annexin-V expression was not significantly different compared to other disease processes (38.6%±25.7%, n=5 vs 20.0%±30.9%, n=14, P=0.087). CONCLUSION: Increased expression of the apoptotic marker, Annexin-V is detected on vitreous microparticles in diabetes-related vitreous hemorrhage. When evaluating vitreous hemorrhage in patients without diabetes, the apoptotic signal is not significantly different. Vitrectomy in patients with diabetes, and improvement in visual outcomes, may be related to the removal of a serum-derived, pro-apoptotic vitreous. Further investigation is warranted in order to identify the molecular characteristics of microparticles that regulate disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Feng Pan ◽  
Yue-jin Li ◽  
Ying Lu

Abstract Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated steroid resistance (SR) has been suggested to play a significant role in lupus nephritis (LN) treatment failure. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), the main effective components of the traditional Chinese medicine notoginseng, exhibited potent reversal capability of P-gp-mediated SR, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PNS on reversing SR in lupus and its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Methods In this study, an SR animal and splenic lymphocyte model were established using low-dose methylprednisolone (MP). Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of PNS on reversing P-gp-mediated SR and the expression of P-gp in different T-cells phenotypes. Serum levels of ANA and dsDNA in lupus mice were measured by ELISA. Apoptosis was identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. RT–PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1, FoxO1, and MDR1 in SR splenic lymphocytes from lupus mice (SLCs/MPs). Results PNS could reverse the SR in lupus mice. Simultaneously, PNS increased the apoptotic effect of MP on SLCs/MP cells. The increased accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) indicated that intracellular steroid accumulation could be increased by the action of PNS. Moreover, PNS decreased the expression of P-gp levels. Further experiments elucidated that the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway existed in SLCs/MP cells, and PNS suppressed its expression level to reverse SR. The expression of P-gp in Th17 from SLCs/MP cells was increased, while PNS could reduce its level in a more obvious trend. Conclusion The present study suggested that PNS reversed P-gp-mediated SR via the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway, which might become a valuable drug for the treatment of SR in lupus. Th17 might be the main effector cell of PNS reversing SR.

2022 ◽  
Hasni Arsad ◽  
Noor Zafirah Ismail ◽  
Salwani Md S ◽  
Ismail Abiola Adebayo ◽  
Zaleha Md T ◽  

Abstract Clinacanthus nutans dichloromethane fraction (CN-Dcm) extract has previously been proven to suppress breast cancer (MCF7) cell proliferation. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms involved in C. nutans extract-treated MCF7 cells are unknown. Hence, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis in treated MCF7 was investigated in this current study. This study was intended to subfractionate CN-Dcm extract using column chromatography and analysed the treated MCF7 cells using the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation (MTS) assay, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assay, western blot and reverse transcription-qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Out of nine subfraction extracts (SF1 to SF9), SF2 extract strongly inhibited MCF7 cells with the lowest IC50 value (23.51 ± 0.99 µg/mL) and substantially induced apoptosis in the MCF7 cells. SF2 extract significantly downregulated BCL-2 expression and upregulated P53, BAX, BID, BCL-2, caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expressions in treated MCF7 cells. Therefore, SF2 extract was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time–of–flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), which confirmed the presence of bioactive chemical compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that the compounds found in SF2 extract may potentially cause apoptosis in MCF7 cells through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 279
Ha Pham Le Khanh ◽  
Dániel Nemes ◽  
Ágnes Rusznyák ◽  
Zoltán Ujhelyi ◽  
Pálma Fehér ◽  

Nowadays, polyethylene glycols referred to as PEGs are widely used in cosmetics, consumer care products, and the pharmaceutical industry. Their advantageous properties such as chemical stability, low immunogenicity, and high tolerability explain why PEGs are applied in many fields of pharmaceutical formulations including parenteral, topical, ophthalmic, oral, and rectal preparations and also in modern drug delivery systems. Given their extensive use, they are considered a well-known group of chemicals. However, the number of large-scale comparative studies involving multiple PEGs of wide molecular weight range is low, as in most cases biological effects are estimated upon molecular weight. The aim of this publication was to study the action of PEGs on Caco-2 cells and G. mellonella larvae and to calculate the correlation of these effects with molecular weight and osmolality. Eleven PEGs of different molecular weight were used in our experiments: PEG 200, PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 600, PEG 1000, PEG 1500, PEG 4000, PEG 8000, PEG 10,000, 12,000, and PEG 20,000. The investigated cellular effects included cytotoxicity (MTT and Neutral Red assays, flow cytometry with propidium iodide and annexin V) and autophagy. The osmolality of different molecular weight PEGs with various concentrations was measured by a vapor pressure osmometer OSMOMAT 070 and G. mellonella larvae were injected with the solutions of PEGs. Sorbitol was used as controls of the same osmolality. Statistical correlation was calculated to describe the average molecular weight dependence of the different measured effects. Osmolality, the cytotoxicity assays, flow cytometry data, and larvae mortality had significant correlation with the structure of the PEGs, while autophagosome formation and the proportion of early apoptotic cells showed no statistical correlation. Overall, it must be noted that PEGs must be tested individually for biological effects as not all effects can be estimated by the average molecular weight.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Wei Li ◽  
Nargis Sultana ◽  
Linda Yuan ◽  
Claes Forssell ◽  
Xi-Ming Yuan

The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD74 levels in atherosclerotic lesions are associated with inflammation, apoptosis, plaque severity, and clinical symptoms among patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We further studied whether CD74 expression is associated with apoptosis in macrophages induced by 7ketocholesterol (7keto). Sixty-one carotid samples (39 males and 22 females) were immunostained with macrophages, smooth muscle cells, CD74, ferritin, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), and thrombin receptors. Double immunocytochemistry of CD74 and caspase 3 or CD74 and Annexin V was performed on THP-1 macrophages exposed to 7keto. In human carotid plaques, CD74 expression is lesion-dependently increased and is associated with necrotic core formation and plaque rupture, clinical symptoms, macrophage apoptosis, ferritin, and thrombin receptors. CD74 levels were inversely correlated to high-density lipoproteins and statin treatment, and positively correlated to triglycerides. In THP-1 macrophages, 7keto induced a significant increase in levels of CD74, ferritin, and apoptotic cell death. This study suggests that CD74 in apoptotic macrophages is linked to inflammation and thrombosis in progression of human atherosclerotic plaques, lipid metabolism, and clinical manifestation in atherosclerosis. Surface CD74 in apoptotic macrophages and ferritin production induced by oxidized lipids may contribute to inflammation and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Guolin Pi ◽  
Wenxin Song ◽  
Zijuan Wu ◽  
Yali Li ◽  
Huansheng Yang

Abstract Background The intestinal porcine enterocyte cell line (IPEC-J2) is a well-established model to study porcine intestinal physiology. IPEC-J2 cells undergo spontaneous differentiation during culture while changes in expression patterns of differentiated IPEC-J2 remain unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the expression profiles of IPEC-J2 cells at the transcriptional level. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), enriched pathways and potential key genes were identified. Alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and percentages of apoptotic cells were also measured. Results Overall, a total of 988 DEGs were identified, including 704 up-regulated and 284 down-regulated genes. GO analysis revealed that epithelial cell differentiation, apoptotic signaling pathway, regulation of cytokine production and immune system process, regulation of cell death and proliferation, cell junction complexes, and kinase binding were enriched significantly. Consistently, KEGG, REACTOME, and CORUM analysis indicated that cytokine responses modulation may be involved in IPEC-J2 differentiation. Moreover, AKP activity, a recognized marker of enterocyte differentiation, was significantly increased in IPEC-J2 after 14 days of culture. Meanwhile, annexin V-FITC/PI assay demonstrated a remarkable increase in apoptotic cells after 14 days of culture. Additionally, 10 hub genes were extracted, and STAT1, AKT3, and VEGFA were speculated to play roles in IPEC-J2 differentiation. Conclusions These findings may contribute to the molecular characterization of IPEC-J2, and may progress the understanding of cellular differentiation of swine intestinal epithelium.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Ammar Tarar ◽  
Esmael M. Alyami ◽  
Ching-An Peng

Sinigrin is present in significant amounts in cruciferous vegetables. Epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of such vegetables decreases the risk of cancer, and the effect is attributed mainly to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a hydrolysis product of sinigrin catalyzed by myrosinase. Anticancer activity of AITC has been previously investigated for several cancer models, but less attention was paid to delivering AITC on the target site. In this study, the gene sequences of core streptavidin (coreSA) and myrosinase (MYR) were cloned in a pET-30a(+) plasmid and transformed into BL21(DE3) E. coli competent cells. The MYR-coreSA chimeric protein was expressed and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and further characterized by gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and enzyme activity assay. The purified MYR-coreSA chimeric protein was tethered on the outer membrane of biotinylated adenocarcinoma A549 cells and then treated with various concentrations of sinigrin. Our results showed that 20 µM of sinigrin inhibited the growth of A549 cells tethered with myrosinase by ~60% in 48 h. Furthermore, the levels of treated cells undertaken apoptosis were determined by Caspase-3/7 activation and Annexin-V. In summary, sinigrin harnessed like a prodrug catalyzed by myrosinase to the production of AITC, which induced cell apoptosis and arrested the growth of lung cancer cells.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 191
Apurwa Singhal ◽  
Shubhi Yadav ◽  
Tulika Chandra ◽  
Shrikant R. Mulay ◽  
Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad ◽  

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are associated with multiple disease pathologies including sepsis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and COVID-19. NETs, being a disintegrated death form, suffered inconsistency in their identification, nomenclature, and quantifications that hindered therapeutic approaches using NETs as a target. Multiple strategies including microscopy, ELISA, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and image-stream-based methods have exhibited drawbacks such as being subjective, non-specific, error-prone, and not being high throughput, and thus demand the development of innovative and efficient approaches for their analyses. Here, we established an imaging and computational algorithm using high content screening (HCS)—cellomics platform that aid in easy, rapid, and specific detection as well as analyses of NETs. This method employed membrane-permeable and impermeable DNA dyes in situ to identify NET-forming cells. Automated algorithm-driven single-cell analysis of change in nuclear morphology, increase in nuclear area, and change in intensities provided precise detection of NET-forming cells and eliminated user bias with other cell death modalities. Further combination with Annexin V staining in situ detected specific death pathway, e.g., apoptosis, and thus, discriminated between NETs, apoptosis, and necrosis. Our approach does not utilize fixation and permeabilization steps that disturb NETs, and thus, allows the time-dependent monitoring of NETs. Together, this specific imaging-based high throughput method for NETs analyses may provide a good platform for the discovery of potential inhibitors of NET formation and/or agents to modulate neutrophil death, e.g., NETosis-apoptosis switch, as an alternative strategy to enhance the resolution of inflammation.

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