cancer incidence
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2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 102093
Thanya Pathirana ◽  
Rehan Sequeira ◽  
Chris Del Mar ◽  
James A. Dickinson ◽  
Bruce K. Armstrong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102057
Arthur Sillah ◽  
Nathaniel F. Watson ◽  
Ulrike Peters ◽  
Mary L. Biggs ◽  
F. Javier Nieto ◽  

Povilas Kavaliauskas ◽  
Audrius Dulskas ◽  
Inga Kildusiene ◽  
Rokas Arlauskas ◽  
Rimantas Stukas ◽  

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the time trends in the incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer for the period of 1998–2015 for the first time in Lithuania by sex, age, subsite, and stage. Methods: This study was based on all cases (deaths) of pancreatic cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2015. Age-standardized incidence (mortality) rates and group-specific rates were calculated for each sex using the direct method (European Standard). TNM classification-based information reported to the cancer registry was grouped into three categories: (1) localized cancer: T1-3/N0/M0; (2) cancer with regional metastasis: any 1-3/N+/M0; (3) advanced cancer: any T/any N/M+. Joinpoint regression was used to provide annual percentage changes (APCs) and to detect points in time where statistically significant changes in the trends occurred. Results: Overall, 8514 pancreatic cancer cases (4364 in men and 3150 in women) were diagnosed and 7684 persons died from cancer of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer incidence rates were considerably lower for women than for men, with a female:male ratio of 1:2. Incidence rates changed during the study period from 14.2 in 1998 to 15.0/100,000 in the year 2015 in men, and from 6.7 to 9.8/100,000 in women. Incidence rates over the study period were stable for men (APC = 0.1%) and increasing for women by 1.1% per year. Similarly, mortality rates increased in women by 0.9% per year, and were stable in men. During the study period, incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer were close. For the entire study period, rates increased significantly in the 50–74 years age group; only cancer of the head of pancreas showed a decline by 0.9%, while tail and not-specified pancreatic cancer incidence increased by 11.4% and 4.51%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasing pancreatic cancer incidence trend in the Lithuanian population may be related to the prevalence of its main risk factors (smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, and diabetes).

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (2) ◽  
pp. 43-47
Taylor D. Ellington ◽  
Jacqueline W. Miller ◽  
S. Jane Henley ◽  
Reda J. Wilson ◽  
Manxia Wu ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 389
Lauro Bucchi ◽  
Margherita Pizzato ◽  
Stefano Rosso ◽  
Stefano Ferretti

The aim of this review was an update of vulvar cancer incidence rates and trends and of all known and putative risk factors for the disease. The most recent incidence data were sought from official sources (WHO Cancer Incidence in Five Continents). To obtain an estimate of time trends in some areas, we compared data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents with the few available studies that measured incidence using comparable methods. With respect to risk factors, a systematic PubMed search identified 1585 relevant articles published between 1980 and 2021. Abstracts and full texts were screened. Sixty-nine eligible original cohort and case-control studies were selected. Information was extracted using a PRISMA predesigned form. Nineteen risk factors, or risk factor categories, were investigated by two or more original studies. Solitary, unreplicated studies addressed the putative role of eight more factors. Recent advances have provided further evidence supporting the carcinogenic model centred on human papillomavirus infection with different defects of the immune function. Conversely, the model centred on the role of vulvar lichen sclerosus and the often associated differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia has continued to be epidemiologically understudied. More research on the association between these two conditions and vulvar cancer is a priority.

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