Rotational Temperature
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2021 ◽  
Vol 922 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Author(s):  
Alessandra Canta ◽  
Richard Teague ◽  
Romane Le Gal ◽  
Karin I. Öberg

Abstract We report the first detection of the molecule cyanomethyl, CH2CN, in a protoplanetary disk. Until now, CH2CN had only been observed at earlier evolutionary stages, in the molecular clouds TMC-1, Sgr2, and L483, in the prestellar core L1544, and toward the protostar L1527. We detect six transitions of ortho-CH2CN toward the disk around nearby T Tauri star TW Hya. An excitation analysis reveals that the disk-averaged column density, N , for ortho-CH2CN is (6.3 ± 0.5) × 1012 cm−2, which is rescaled to reflect a 3:1 ortho-para ratio, resulting in a total column density, N tot, of (8.4 ± 0.7) × 1012 cm−2. We calculate a disk-average rotational temperature, T rot = 40 ± 5 K, while a radially resolved analysis shows that T rot remains relatively constant across the radius of the disk. This high rotation temperature suggests that in a static disk and if vertical mixing can be neglected, CH2CN is largely formed through gas-phase reactions in the upper layers of the disk, rather than solid-state reactions on the surface of grains in the disk midplane. The integrated intensity radial profiles show a ring structure consistent with molecules such as CN and DCN. We note that this is also consistent with previous lower-resolution observations of centrally peaked CH3CN emission toward the TW Hya disks, since the observed emission gap disappears when convolving our observations with a larger beam size. We obtain a CH2CN/CH3CN ratio ranging between 4 and 10. This high CH2CN/CH3CN is reproduced in a representative chemical model of the TW Hya disk that employs standard static disk chemistry model assumptions, i.e., without any additional tuning.


2021 ◽  
Vol 140 (9) ◽  
Author(s):  
Cameron J. Mackie ◽  
Alessandra Candian ◽  
Timothy J. Lee ◽  
Alexander G. G. M. Tielens

AbstractThe profile of the 11.2 μm feature of the infrared (IR) cascade emission spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules is investigated using a vibrational anharmonic method. Several factors are found to affect the profile including: the energy of the initially absorbed ultraviolet (UV) photon, the density of vibrational states, the anharmonic nature of the vibrational modes, the relative intensities of the vibrational modes, the rotational temperature of the molecule, and blending with nearby features. Each of these factors is explored independently and influence either the red or blue wing of the 11.2 μm feature. The majority impact solely the red wing, with the only factor altering the blue wing being the rotational temperature.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrey A. Popov ◽  
Nikolai M. Gavrilov ◽  
Vladimir I. Perminov ◽  
Nikolai N. Pertsev ◽  
Irina V. Medvedeva ◽  
...  

<p>Mesoscale variations of the rotational temperature of excited hydroxyl (OH*) are studied at altitudes 85 – 90  km using the data of spectral measurements of nightglow emission at Russian observatories Zvenigorod (56 ° N, 37°E.) in years 2004  –  2016, Tory (52 ° N, 103°E) in  2012  –  2017 and Maimaga (63° N,  130° E) in  2014 - 2019. The filtering of mesoscale variations was made by calculations of the differences between the measured values of OH* rotational temperature separated with time intervals of <em>dt</em> ~ 0.5 - 2 hr. Comparisons of monthly variances of the temperature differences for various <em>dt</em> allow us to estimate coherent and non-coherent in time components of the mesoscale temperature perturbations. The first component can be associated with mesoscale waves near the mesopause. The non-coherent component may be produced by instrument errors and atmospheric turbulence. The results allow us correcting the observed mesoscale temperature variances at all listed sites for contributions of instrumental and turbulent errors. Seasonal and interannual changes in the coherent component of mesoscale variances of the temperature at the observational sites are studied, which may reflect respective changes in the intensity of mesoscale internal gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region.</p><p>     The analysis of nightglows data was supported by the grant #19-35-90130 of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Hydroxyl nightglow data at the Tory site were obtained with the equipment of the Center for Common Use «Angara» http://ckp-rf.ru/ckp/3056/ at the ISTP SB RAS within budgetary funding from the Basic Research Program (Project 0278-2021-0003). Data of the “Geomodel” Resource Center of Saint-Petersburg State University were used.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 646 ◽  
pp. L1
Author(s):  
C. Cabezas ◽  
Y. Endo ◽  
E. Roueff ◽  
N. Marcelino ◽  
M. Agúndez ◽  
...  

Our observations of TMC-1 with the Yebes 40 m radio telescope in the 31.0–50.3 GHz range allowed us to detect a group of unidentified lines, showing a complex line pattern indicative of an open-shell species. The observed frequencies of these lines and the similarity of the spectral pattern with that of the 20, 2–10, 1 rotational transition of H2CCN indicate that the lines arise from the deuterated cyanomethyl radical, HDCCN. Using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy experiments combined with electric discharges, we succeeded in producing the radical HDCCN in the laboratory and observed its 10, 1–00, 0 and 20, 2–10, 1 rotational transitions. From our observations and assuming a rotational temperature of 5 K, we derive an abundance ratio H2CCN/HDCCN = 20 ± 4. The high abundance of the deuterated form of H2CCN is well accounted for by a standard gas-phase model, in which deuteration is driven by deuteron transfer from the H2D+ molecular ion.


Author(s):  
Nikolai M. Gavrilov ◽  
Andrej A. Popov ◽  
Vladimir I. Perminov ◽  
Nikolay N. Pertsev ◽  
Irina V. Medvedeva ◽  
...  

2020 ◽  
Vol 499 (3) ◽  
pp. 4432-4444
Author(s):  
Shen Wang ◽  
Zhiyuan Ren ◽  
Di Li ◽  
Jens Kauffmann ◽  
Qizhou Zhang ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Although ammonia is a widely used interstellar thermometer, the estimation of its rotational and kinetic temperatures can be affected by the blended hyperfine components (HFCs). We have developed a new recipe, referred to as the hyperfine group ratio (HFGR), which utilizes only direct observables, namely the intensity ratios between the grouped HFCs. As tested on the model spectra, the empirical formulae in the HFGR can derive the rotational temperature (Trot) from the HFC group ratios in an unambiguous manner. We compared the HFGR with two other classical methods, intensity ratio and hyperfine fitting, based on both simulated spectra and real data. The HFGR has three major improvements. First, it does not require modelling the HFC or fitting the line profiles, so it is more robust against the effect of HFC blending. Second, the simulation-enabled empirical formulae are much faster than fitting the spectra over the parameter space, so both computer time and human time can be saved. Third, the statistical uncertainty of the temperature ΔTrot as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is a natural product of the HFGR recipe. The internal error of the HFGR is ΔTrot ≤ 0.5 K over a broad parameter space of rotational temperature (10–60 K), linewidth (0.3–4 km s−1) and optical depth (0–5). When there is spectral noise, the HFGR can also maintain a reasonable uncertainty level at ΔTrot ≤ 1.0 K when S/N > 4.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Takanori Nishiyama ◽  
Makoto Taguchi ◽  
Hidehiko Suzuki ◽  
Peter Dalin ◽  
Yasunobu Ogawa ◽  
...  

Abstract We have carried out ground-based NIRAS (Near-InfraRed Aurora and airglow Spectrograph) observations at Syowa station, Antarctic (69.0°S, 39.6°E) and Kiruna (67.8°N, 20.4°E), Sweden for continuous measurements of hydroxyl (OH) rotational temperatures and a precise evaluation of aurora contaminations to OH Meinel (3,1) band. A total of 368-nights observations succeeded for two winter seasons, and three cases in which N+2 Meinel (1,2) band around 1.5 μm was significant were identified. Focusing on two specific cases, detailed spectral characteristics with high temporal resolutions of 30 seconds are presented. Intensities of N+2 band were estimated to be 228 kR and 217 kR just at the moment of the aurora breakup and arc intensifications during pseudo breakup, respectively. At a wavelength of P1(2) line (∼ 1523 nm), N+2 emissions were almost equal to or greater than the OH line intensity. On the other hand, at a wavelength of P1(4) line (∼ 1542 nm), the OH line was not seriously contaminated and still dominant to N+2 emissions. Furthermore, we evaluated N+2 (1,2) band effects on OH rotational temperature estimations quantitatively for the first time. Aurora contaminations from N+2 (1,2) band basically lead negative bias in OH rotational temperature estimated by line-pair-ratio method with P1(2) and P1(4) lines in OH (3,1) band. They possibly cause underestimations of OH rotational temperatures up to 40 K. In addition, N+2 (1,2) band contaminations were temporally limited to a moment around aurora breakup. This is consistent with proceeding studies reporting that enhancements of N+2 (1,2) band were observed associated with International Brightness Coefficient 2-3 auroras. It is also suggested that the contaminations would be neglected in polar cap and sub-aurora zone, where strong aurora intensifications are less observed. Further spectroscopic investigations at this wavelength are needed especially for more precise evaluations of to N+2 (1,2) band contaminations. For example, simultaneous 2-D imaging observation and spectroscopic measurement with high spectral resolutions for airglow in OH (3,1) band will make great advances in more robust temperature estimations.


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