innate immune responses
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Physiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jessica L. Bradshaw ◽  
Spencer C Cushen ◽  
Nicole R Phillips ◽  
Styliani Goulopoulou

Circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) released upon cell injury or death stimulates diverse pattern recognition receptors to activate innate immune responses and initiate systemic inflammation. In this review, we discuss the temporal changes of ccf-mtDNA during pregnancy and its potential contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnancy complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hye Jin Ko ◽  
Bharat Bhusan Patnaik ◽  
Ki Beom Park ◽  
Chang Eun Kim ◽  
Snigdha Baliarsingh ◽  

The inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) kinase (IKK) is the core regulator of the NF-κB pathway against pathogenic invasion in vertebrates or invertebrates. IKKβ, -ε and -γ have pivotal roles in the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. In this study, a homolog of IKKε (TmIKKε) was identified from Tenebrio molitor RNA sequence database and functionally characterized for its role in regulating immune signaling pathways in insects. The TmIKKε gene is characterized by two exons and one intron comprising an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,196 bp that putatively encodes a polypeptide of 731 amino acid residues. TmIKKε contains a serine/threonine protein kinases catalytic domain. Phylogenetic analysis established the close homology of TmIKKε to Tribolium castaneum IKKε (TcIKKε) and its proximity with other IKK-related kinases. The expression of TmIKKε mRNA was elevated in the gut, integument, and hemocytes of the last-instar larva and the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and testis of 5-day-old adults. TmIKKε expression was significantly induced by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans challenge in whole larvae and tissues, such as hemocytes, gut, and fat body. The knockdown of the TmIKKε messenger RNA (mRNA) expression significantly reduced the survival of the larvae against microbial challenges. Further, we investigated the induction patterns of 14 T. molitor antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) genes in TmIKKε gene-silencing model after microbial challenges. While in hemocytes, the transcriptional regulation of most AMPs was negatively regulated in the gut and fat body tissue of T. molitor, AMPs, such as TmTenecin 1, TmTenecin 4, TmDefensin, TmColeoptericin A, TmColeoptericin B, TmAttacin 1a, and TmAttacin 2, were positively regulated in TmIKKε-silenced individuals after microbial challenge. Collectively, the results implicate TmIKKε as an important factor in antimicrobial innate immune responses in T. molitor.

JCI Insight ◽  
2022 ◽  
Helen I. Warheit-Niemi ◽  
Summer J. Edwards ◽  
Shuvasree SenGupta ◽  
Carole A. Parent ◽  
Xiaofeng Zhou ◽  

2022 ◽  
Natsumi Maruta ◽  
Hayden Burdett ◽  
Bryan Y. J. Lim ◽  
Xiahao Hu ◽  
Sneha Desa ◽  

AbstractAnimals and plants have NLRs (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors) that recognize the presence of pathogens and initiate innate immune responses. In plants, there are three types of NLRs distinguished by their N-terminal domain: the CC (coiled-coil) domain NLRs, the TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain NLRs and the RPW8 (resistance to powdery mildew 8)-like coiled-coil domain NLRs. CC-NLRs (CNLs) and TIR-NLRs (TNLs) generally act as sensors of effectors secreted by pathogens, while RPW8-NLRs (RNLs) signal downstream of many sensor NLRs and are called helper NLRs. Recent studies have revealed three dimensional structures of a CNL (ZAR1) including its inactive, intermediate and active oligomeric state, as well as TNLs (RPP1 and ROQ1) in their active oligomeric states. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests that members of the family of lipase-like EDS1 (enhanced disease susceptibility 1) proteins, which are uniquely found in seed plants, play a key role in providing a link between sensor NLRs and helper NLRs during innate immune responses. Here, we summarize the implications of the plant NLR structures that provide insights into distinct mechanisms of action by the different sensor NLRs and discuss plant NLR-mediated innate immune signalling pathways involving the EDS1 family proteins and RNLs.

2021 ◽  
Masahito Irie ◽  
Johbu Itoh ◽  
Ayumi Matsuzawa ◽  
Masahito Ikawa ◽  
Toru Suzuki ◽  

Retrotransposon Gag-like 5 (RTL5, also known as sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homolog 8 (SIRH8)) and RTL6 (aka SIRH3) are eutherian-specific genes presumably derived from a retrovirus and phylogenetically related to each other. RTL5 encodes a strongly acidic protein while RTL6 encodes an extremely basic protein, and the former is well conserved and the latter extremely well conserved among the eutherians, indicating their unique and critically important roles as acquired genes. Here we report that RTL5 and RTL6 are microglial genes playing roles in the front line of brain innate immune responses against distinct pathogens. Venus and mCherry knock-in mice exhibited expression of RTL5-mCherry and RTL6-Venus fusion proteins in microglia and as extracellular granules in the central nervus system (CNS), and displayed a rapid response to pathogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), double-stranded (ds) RNA analog and non-methylated CpG DNA. These proteins trapped pathogens in microglia in a variety of RTL-pathogen complexes depending on the pathogens. These results demonstrate that RTL5 and RTL6 exert functional effects against different hazardous substances cooperatively and/or independently to protect the developing and/or mature brain. This provides the first evidence that retrovirus-derived genes play a role in the innate immune system of the eutherian brain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 343
Zhe Wang ◽  
Xiaoping Gou

Stomata regulate gas and water exchange between the plant and external atmosphere, which are vital for photosynthesis and transpiration. Stomata are also the natural entrance for pathogens invading into the apoplast. Therefore, stomata play an important role in plants against pathogens. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) locate in guard cells to perceive pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger a series of plant innate immune responses, including rapid closure of stomata to limit bacterial invasion, which is termed stomatal immunity. Many PRRs involved in stomatal immunity are plasma membrane-located receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). This review focuses on the current research progress of RLK-mediated signaling pathways involved in stomatal immunity, and discusses questions that need to be addressed in future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Atteqa Safdar ◽  
Sara Iftikhar ◽  
Ghassan Zahid

Immune system of living organisms ranging from fungi, plants, vertebrates and invertebrates are all aided by polypeptide chains like defensins and cathelicidins. In humans the defensisns are quite fundamental part of innate immune system in combating with day-to-day exposure to unknown pathogens. The defensins are classified as alpha beta and sigma defensins expressed at chromosome 8 at nearly same positions, the sigma defensin is however synthetically developed as reterocyclin, as it has been stopped producing because of evolutionary development of stop codon 7.5 million years ago. The expression of Defensins can be either constitutive or inducible through epithelial cells, Paneth cells or other respective immune cells to regulate the activation of the innate immune responses. These impart their role either by direct microbicidal action, antiviral activity, inactivation or neutralization of microbial products, mobilization or activation of phagocytes and mast cells. Further to this there is lot more to explore about the availability of similar genetic expressions as defensins with unclear functions and in vivo experimental models development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Ragnhild Inderberg Vestrum ◽  
Torunn Forberg ◽  
Birgit Luef ◽  
Ingrid Bakke ◽  
Per Winge ◽  

The roles of host-associated bacteria have gained attention lately, and we now recognise that the microbiota is essential in processes such as digestion, development of the immune system and gut function. In this study, Atlantic cod larvae were reared under germ-free, gnotobiotic and conventional conditions. Water and fish microbiota were characterised by 16S rRNA gene analyses. The cod larvae’s transcriptional responses to the different microbial conditions were analysed by a custom Agilent 44 k oligo microarray. Gut development was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Water and fish microbiota differed significantly in the conventional treatment and were dominated by different fast-growing bacteria. Our study indicates that components of the innate immune system of cod larvae are downregulated by the presence of non-pathogenic bacteria, and thus may be turned on by default in the early larval stages. We see indications of decreased nutrient uptake in the absence of bacteria. The bacteria also influence the gut morphology, reflected in shorter microvilli with higher density in the conventional larvae than in the germ-free larvae. The fact that the microbiota alters innate immune responses and gut morphology demonstrates its important role in marine larval development.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Thomas Laval ◽  
Laura Pedró-Cos ◽  
Wladimir Malaga ◽  
Laure Guenin-Macé ◽  
Alexandre Pawlik ◽  

Successful control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection by macrophages relies on immunometabolic reprogramming, where the role of fatty acids (FAs) remains poorly understood. Recent studies unraveled Mtb's capacity to acquire saturated and monounsaturated FAs via the Mce1 importer. However upon activation, macrophages produce polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), mammal-specific FAs mediating the generation of immunomodulatory eicosanoids. Here, we asked how Mtb modulates de novo synthesis of PUFAs in primary mouse macrophages and whether this benefits host or pathogen. Quantitative lipidomics revealed that Mtb infection selectively activates the biosynthesis of w6 PUFAs upstream of the eicosanoid precursor arachidonic acid (AA), via transcriptional activation of Fads2. Inhibiting FADS2 in infected macrophages impaired their inflammatory and antimicrobial responses but had no effect on Mtb growth in mice. Using a click-chemistry approach, we found that Mtb efficiently imports w6 PUFAs via Mce1 in axenic culture, including AA. Further, Mtb preferentially internalized AA over all other FAs within infected macrophages, by mechanisms partially depending on Mce1 and supporting intracellular persistence. Notably, IFNγ repressed de novo synthesis of AA by infected mouse macrophages and restricted AA import by intracellular Mtb. Together, these findings identify AA as a major FA substrate for intracellular Mtb, whose mobilization by innate immune responses is opportunistically hijacked by the pathogen and downregulated by IFNγ.

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