Despite innovations in orthopedic dentistry, removable dentures belong to the most popular orthopedic care category. Removable dentures are combined stimuli that affect the mucous membrane and neuro-receptor apparatus. Acrylic plastic prostheses, widely used in prosthetic dentistry, have a negative side mechanical, chemical-toxic, sensitizing, and thermal insulating effect on oral tissue and prosthetic impression area. This is often complicated by a violation of the biocenosis of the oral cavity, the growth of pathogenic microflora that releases toxins, especially an increase in the number of yeast colonies that irritate the oral mucosa and prosthetic stomatitis. It was observed 100 patients with oral candidiasis of various age groups from 45 to 65 years. Of these, 60 patients with removable plate prostheses; 40 patients with partially removable prostheses. Chronic forms of candidiasis were diagnosed in 40 patients and with exacerbation of chronic forms of candidiasis in 60 people. The number of untreated carious cavities and poor hygienic condition of the oral cavity directly affects the severity of candidiasis. Acute forms of candidiasis were observed mainly in patients with high DMF and PMA indices. The severity of candidiasis depends on the degree and duration of wearing dentures and hygienic conditions - the most severe forms of invasive candidiasis were observed in the presence of removable plate prostheses, the complete absence of teeth, and the use of a prosthesis for more than 10-15 years. A combined lesion of the oral mucosa and the red border of the lips was observed mainly in patients older than 60 years. The presence of candidiasis in the oral cavity in patients with removable plate prostheses leads to a statistically significant change in the indicators of local immunity of the oral cavity: an increase in the concentration of serum IgG and IgA and the values of the coefficient of the balance of local immunity factors.
Abstract: Covid-19 means Corona Virus Disease which is an emergency disease declared by World Health Organization. Its first case was reported on December, 2019 in a city of China name Wuhan. Responsible virus for Covid-19 is SARS-CoV-2. Disease can be transmitted by Sneezing, Coughing, Close Contact etc. Patient of Covid-19 advise to isolate themselves for minimum 14 days either in Home or Hospital setup.
The oral cavity is inhabited by a wide spectrum of microbial species, and their colonization is mostly based on commensalism. These microbes are part of the normal oral flora, but there are also opportunistic species that can cause oral and systemic diseases. Although there is a strong exposure to various microorganisms, the oral mucosa reduces the colonization of microorganisms with high rotation and secretion of various types of cytokines and antimicrobial proteins such as defensins. In some circumstances, the imbalance between normal oral flora and pathogenic flora may lead to a change in the ratio of commensalism to parasitism. Healthy oral mucosa has many important functions. Thanks to its integrity, it is impermeable to most microorganisms and constitutes a mechanical barrier against their penetration into tissues. Our study aims to present the role and composition of the oral cavity microbiota as well as defense mechanisms within the oral mucosa which allow for maintaining a balance between such numerous species of microorganisms. We highlight the specific aspects of the oral mucosa protecting barrier and discuss up-to-date information on the immune cell system that ensures microbiota balance. This study presents the latest data on specific tissue stimuli in the regulation of the immune system with particular emphasis on the resistance of the gingival barrier. Despite advances in understanding the mechanisms regulating the balance on the microorganism/host axis, more research is still needed on how the combination of these diverse signals is involved in the regulation of immunity at the oral mucosa barrier.
Background. The arches used in orthodontic therapy are subject to increasing physical and chemical stresses. Purpose of the study: This in vitro experimental study aims to highlight and compare the main mechanical properties of orthodontic arches. Materials and Methods: We used 40 springs, 2 materials, 20 of Ni-Cr and 20 of Co-Cr, of different diameters, 0.7 mm 0.8 mm and 1.2 mm, subjected to the environment of artificial saliva and artificial saliva with cola for one month and two months, respectively. Five springs of each material were tested at different times: T0, before application in the oral cavity, then at time T1, T2, T3, T4. Three lengths of the lever arm were considered for bending forces acting on the springs (dental wires). These lengths were 15, 10 and 5 mm. The wires were tested under the action of bending forces on a Hans Schmidt HV 500N stand, obtaining the characteristics of the wires: deformation-force-time. Results: Graphical determinations show that the degree of deformation of the wires is influenced by the applied force, diameter and obviously by the immersion time, respectively by the type of solution in which the springs were immersed. Conclusions: The final degree of bending is higher for Co-Cr arcs than for Ni-Cr at all three dimensions.
Oropharyngeal dysphagia, a clinical condition that indicates difficulty in moving food and liquid from the oral cavity to the esophagus, has a markedly high prevalence in the elderly. The number of elderly people with oropharyngeal dysphagia is expected to increase due to the aging of the world’s population. Understanding the current situation of dysphagia screening is crucial when considering future countermeasures. We report findings from a literature review including citations on current objective dysphagia screening tests: the Water Swallowing Test, Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, and the Gugging Swallowing Screen. Pneumonia can be predicted using the results of the screening tests discussed in this review, and the response after the screening tests is important for prevention. In addition, although interdisciplinary team approaches prevent and reduce aspiration, optimal treatment is a challenging. Intervention studies with multiple factors focusing on the elderly are needed.
Many fishes use substantial cranial kinesis to rapidly increase buccal cavity volume, pulling prey into the mouth via suction feeding. Living polypterids are a key lineage for understanding the evolution and biomechanics of suction feeding due to their phylogenetic position and unique morphology. Polypterus bichir have fewer mobile cranial elements compared to teleosts (e.g., immobile [pre]maxillae) but successfully generate suction through dorsal, ventral, and lateral oral cavity expansion. However, the relative contributions of these motions to suction feeding success have not been quantified. Additionally, extensive body musculature and lack of opercular jaw opening linkages make P. bichir of interest for examining the role of cranial vs. axial muscles in driving mandibular depression. Here we analyze the kinematics of buccal expansion during suction feeding in P. bichir using X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and quantify the contributions of skeletal elements to oral cavity volume expansion and prey capture. Mouth gape peaks early in the strike, followed by maximum cleithral and ceratohyal rotations, and finally by opercular and suspensorial abductions, maintaining the anterior-to-posterior movement of water. Using a new method of quantifying bones’ relative contributions to volume change (RCVC) we demonstrate that ceratohyal kinematics are the most significant drivers of oral cavity volume change. All measured cranial bone motions, except abduction of the suspensorium, are correlated with prey motion. Lastly, cleithral retraction is largely concurrent with ceratohyal retraction and jaw depression while the sternohyoideus maintains constant length, suggesting a central role of the axial muscles, cleithrum, and ceratohyal in ventral expansion.