Daily Living
Recently Published Documents





Jelena Bezold ◽  
Sandra Trautwein ◽  
Bettina Barisch-Fritz ◽  
Andrea Scharpf ◽  
Janina Krell-Roesch ◽  

AbstractWe aimed to examine the effects of a 16-week multimodal exercise program (MEP) on activities of daily living (ADL) in individuals with dementia (IWD). Furthermore, we investigated the participants’ individual response to the MEP and whether baseline cognitive and motor performance explain ADL performance. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving 319 participants aged ≥ 65 years with mild to moderate dementia. ADL were assessed at baseline and after the 16-week intervention using the Barthel Index (BI), the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL) and the 7‑item Physical Performance Test (PPT-7). We additionally assessed cognitive and motor performance using standardized and validated assessments. Intervention effects were examined through two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements applying a per protocol and an intention-to-treat analysis. We compared baseline cognitive and motor performance between positive-responders (positive-R), non-responders (non-R), and negative-responders (negative-R) and examined cognitive and motor performance as potential cofounders of ADL by conducting multiple regression analyses. There were no significant time×group effects on ADL. Between 20 and 32% of participants responded positively to the intervention, i.e., improved ADL performance from baseline to follow-up. Positive-R had worse baseline motor performance compared to non-R. Cognitive and motor performance explained up to 51.4% of variance in ADL. The MEP had no significant overall effect on ADL in IWD. This may be related to insufficient exercise intensity. However, our results indicate that the response to the MEP depends on individual prerequisites which should thus be considered in further research on individual exercise approaches.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yaxin Zhang ◽  
Pan Liu ◽  
Yiming Pan ◽  
Ying Li ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  

Background: Physical function gradually decreases with age in older adults, affecting their independence and quality of life and leaving them prone to adverse outcomes. Despite the importance of assessing function for older adults, most studies have focused on disability and paid less attention to functional impairment. Thus, given the lack of valid and practical methods for evaluating functional impairment for older adults, we developed the function impairment screening tool (FIST) using the Delphi method.Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the FIST in Chinese older adults.Methods: A total of 489 participants aged 60 years or older, and who had completed the FIST were included. A subgroup of 50 participants completed the FIST a second time, 1 week after the first round, and the test–retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Criterion-related validity was assessed using correlations between the FIST and the Barthel Index activities of daily living (ADL), Lawton, and Brody instrumental activities of daily living (LB-IADL).Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FIST was 0.930 (P < 0.001). The test–retest reliability was good, with an ICC of 0.928 (95% confidence interval [0.874, 0.960]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed one factor accounting for 60.14% of the scale's variance and the load values of every item were >0.4 (0.489–0.872). The correlation coefficient was 0.572 (P < 0.001) between the FIST score and ADL, and was 0.793 (P < 0.001) between the FIST score and IADL. The FIST score was positively correlated with walking speed (r = 0.475, P < 0.001) and grip strength (r = 0.307, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age (r = −0.588, P < 0.001) and Fried frailty phenotype (r = −0.594, P < 0.001).Conclusion: The FIST is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing physical function impairment in older adults.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
Adem Bora ◽  
Seyit Ali Büyüktuna ◽  
Kasım Durmuş ◽  
Berat Baturay Demirkıran ◽  
Yasin Aslan ◽  

Abstract Background This study was to investigate the frequency of self-reported dizziness symptom in cases with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and the severity of dizziness, if any, by using various scales. The frequency and severity of the self-reported dizziness symptom of CCHF patients, level of disability caused by dizziness, and to what extent vestibular symptoms affected activities of daily living were assessed by various scales. The frequency and severity of the self-reported dizziness symptom of CCHF patients, level of disability caused by dizziness, and to what extent vestibular symptoms affected activities of daily living were assessed by various scales. Results The frequency of dizziness in CCHF cases included in the study was 11.11% and all the cases were involved in the mild category in terms of disease severity. When the results of the scales applied to all of the cases were evaluated in general, it was seen that there was no vertigo or dizziness. Conclusion According to the results of the present study, we consider that multicenter studies with large series investigating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these clinical symptoms are needed in order to evaluate dizziness symptom and to make definitive interpretations in CCHF disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Shunsuke Sato ◽  
Mamoru Hashimoto ◽  
Kenji Yoshiyama ◽  
Hideki Kanemoto ◽  
Maki Hotta ◽  

Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify the neuropsychiatric symptoms of right-sided predominant semantic dementia (SD-R) by comparing them with those of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), left-sided predominant SD (SD-L), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study also aimed to identify clinical factors related to caregiver burden for bvFTD, SD-R, and SD-L. Methods The neuropsychiatric symptoms of 28 patients with bvFTD, 14 patients with SD-R, 24 patients with SD-L, and 43 patients with AD were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI). Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Dementia severity was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Lawton Instrument Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. We compared the NPI and SRI scores among the four groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, clinical factors related to caregiver burden, represented by the Japanese version of the Zarit Burden Interview (J-ZBI), were analyzed using multiple regression analysis in the bvFTD, SD-R, and SD-L groups. Results The NPI total score and the NPI subscale scores of apathy and disinhibition were significantly higher in the bvFTD group than in the SD-L and AD groups. The SD-R group scores were closer to those of the bvFTD group than the SD-L group. The SRI total score and SRI subscale scores for eating and cooking and speaking were significantly higher in the bvFTD, SD-R, and SD-L groups than in the AD group. The NPI total score was significantly associated with the J-ZBI score in the bvFTD group. The NPI total score and Lawton IADL scale score were independently associated with the J-ZBI score in the SD-R group. Furthermore, the NPI total score and MMSE score were independently associated with the J-ZBI score in the SD-L group. Conclusions SD-R seemed to be a similar condition to bvFTD rather than SD-L regarding behavioral symptoms. Our results suggest that each frontotemporal dementia subgroup requires different approaches to reduce the caregiver burden.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 72-87
Madhurima Kumar ◽  
Shipra Modak

Age associated cognitive decline is an important human experience which differs in extent between individuals. Activities of daily living are linked to cognitive function. A descriptive study was conducted to identify correlation between the cognitive impairment (CI) and the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly people residing in selected old-age homes of West Bengal. The study aimed to determine the relationship between the CI and the performance of ADL among elderly people. Non experimental survey research approach was adopted to collect data from 150 subjects by simple random sampling technique with the help of Demographic Proforma, GPCOG Screening Test and Barthel Index. The study findings revealed that 43.33% of the respondents had cognitive impairment whereas 56.66% were cognitively intact. ADL assessment depicted that 43.33% were moderately dependent, 33.33% were independent, 14.66% were slightly dependent, followed by 8.66% of the respondents who were severely dependent. A strong positive correlation was found between CI and ADL (r = 0.87) and also between CI and age (r = 0.97) of the participants. Statistically significant association was found between cognitive impairment and gender (χ2 = 5.99, <0.05), education (χ2 = 8.81, <0.05), previous occupation (χ2 = 12.80, <0.01), self financial support (χ2 = 10.12, <0.01), family type (χ2 = 15.77, <0.001), presence of chronic disease (χ2 = 4.10, <0.05). Considering the findings some recommendations were offered for future research such as to conduct the study on large sample and different settings. Key words: Cognitive impairment, Activities of daily living, Elderly people, Correlation, Performance.

Hui Chen ◽  
Shaukat Khan ◽  
Betul Celik ◽  
Yasuyuki Suzuki ◽  
Yasuhiko Ago ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. jim-2020-001675
Jian-Feng Qu ◽  
Huo-Hua Zhong ◽  
Wen-Cong Liang ◽  
Yang-Kun Chen ◽  
Yong-Lin Liu ◽  

The aim of the present study was to determine the neuroimaging predictors of poor participation after acute ischemic stroke. A total of 443 patients who had acute ischemic stroke were assessed. At 1-year recovery, the Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participation restriction. We also assessed the Activities of Daily Living Scale and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Brain MRI measurement included acute infarcts and pre-existing abnormalities such as enlarged perivascular spaces, white matter lesions, ventricular-brain ratio, and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA). The study included 324 men (73.1%) and 119 women (26.9%). In the univariate analysis, patients with poor participation after 1 year were older, more likely to be men, had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, with more histories of hypertension and atrial fibrillation, larger infarct volume, more severely enlarged perivascular spaces and MTLA, and more severe periventricular hyperintensities and deep white matter hyperintensities. Patients with participation restriction also had poor activities of daily living (ADL) and mRS score. Multiple logistic regression showed that, in model 1, age, male gender, NIHSS score on admission, and ADL on follow-up were significant predictors of poor participation, accounting for 60.2% of the variance. In model 2, which included both clinical and MRI variables, male gender, NIHSS score on admission, ADL on follow-up, and MTLA were significant predictors of poor participation, accounting for 61.2% of the variance. Participation restriction was common after acute ischemic stroke despite good mRS score. Male gender, stroke severity, severity of ADL on follow-up, and MTLA may be predictors of poor participation.Trial registration number ChiCTR1800016665.

Amie Duncan ◽  
Melissa Liddle ◽  
Ryan Adams

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yaofeng Han ◽  
Jihui Xue ◽  
Wei Pei ◽  
Ya Fang

Abstract Background The global burden of disability continues to increase. Understanding the hierarchical structure of activities of daily living (ADL) and the trajectories of disability of elderly individuals is pivotal to developing early interventions. Purpose To determine the hierarchical structure of the ability of Chinese elderly individuals to perform ADL and further describe the trajectories of disability prior to death. Methods Longitudinal item response theory model (LIRT) was constructed for 28,345 elderly participants in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, in which ADL were measured using the Katz scale from 1998 to 2018, until the participants’ death. Two difficulty parameters (κ−partial and κ−total) were used in the LIRT defining the thresholds for hierarchical structure in ADL (κ−partial: no limitation to partial limitation, κ−total: partial limitation to totally limited). Disability values estimated from the LIRT were fitted to a mixed-effects model to examine the manner in which the trajectories of disability varied with different subject characteristics. Results The findings confirmed the earliest loss in the capability to perform ADL (bathing(κ-partial = − 1.396), toileting(κ-partial = − 0.904)) at the level of partial limitation, with an overlap of partial and totally limited (total bathing, partial dressing, partial transferring, total dressing, partial feeding, partial continence), and finally a total loss of capability for toileting, feeding, transferring, and continence (κ-total = 3.647). Disability trajectories varied with sex (β = 0.041, SE = 0.001), place of residence (β = 0.010, SE = 0.001), and marital status (β = 0.144, SE = 0.001). Females, individuals living in urban areas, and those who lived without a spouse had a poorer disability status. Conclusion The loss in the ability to perform ADL has a hierarchical structure. Subject characteristics affect trajectories of disability in the elderly Chinese population.

Sujin Jang ◽  
Katya Numbers ◽  
Ben Chun Pan Lam ◽  
Perminder S. Sachdev ◽  
Henry Brodaty ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document