chemical characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 775-796
Paulo Cesar Batista de Farias ◽  
Leilson Rocha Bezerra ◽  
Alex Lopes da Silva ◽  
Romilda Rodrigues do Nascimento ◽  

Forage sorghum is a crop that can be planted in semiarid regions, due to its greater adaptability to dry climate environments, and can replace maize in these regions, which are often unsuitable for its production. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the structural, morphological and nutritional characteristics of 23 sorghum hybrids forage cultivated in rainfed conditions, planted in different climate conditions, comparing the hybrids, in order to determine what produces the best in the climatic conditions of the explored region, and also to indicate whether this crop can be planted as a replacement for maize in environments not suitable for planting it. The research was conducted in climate BSh in the Municipality of Alvorada do Gurgueia, and climate Aw in the Municipality of Bom Jesus, both in the state of Piauí from 2014 to 2015. Each trial consisted of 20 experimental forage sorghum hybrids [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and three commercial hybrids. A randomized block design was used, with three replications in a factorial scheme (2 × 23). The growth characteristics determined were hybrid × climate interaction for the variables plant height, lodging and leaf/stem ratio. For the variable number of tillers, there was a significant difference only between hybrids. There was no difference between hybrids only for the lodging variable of climate Aw. The other variables showed a difference in all hybrids evaluated. There was an interaction for production of dead matter and total dry forage mass between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. For leaf production, there was an effect only for the different environments. For the chemical characteristics, there was an interaction for all variables analyzed between the different environments and hybrids evaluated. The semi-arid region of the State of Piauí, climate BSh which presents a high climatic risk for maize cultivation, proved to be favorable for forage sorghum production. The forage sorghum also presented agronomic characteristics similar to those found in semi humid climate Aw, a favorable region for maize cultivation. In addition, the tested hybrids showed good chemical characteristics, so the BSh climate has great exploratory potential for the cultivation of forage sorghum.

2022 ◽  
Vol 263 ◽  
pp. 107397
Delfran Batista dos Santos ◽  
Salomão de Sousa Medeiros ◽  
Tereza Amelia Lopes Cizenando Guedes Rocha ◽  
Rafael Oliveira Batista ◽  
José Amilton Santos Júnior ◽  

Quanju Xiang ◽  
Juntao Zhang ◽  
Xiying Huang ◽  
Menggen Ma ◽  
Ke Zhao ◽  

Silage fermentation, a sustainable way to use vegetable waste resources, is a complex process driven by a variety of microorganisms. We used lettuce waste as the main raw material for silage, analyzed changes in the physico-chemical characteristics and bacterial community composition of silage over a 60-day fermentation, identified differentially abundant taxa, predicted the functional profiles of bacterial communities, and determined the associated effects on the quality of silage. The biggest changes occurred in the early stage of silage fermentation. Changes in the physico-chemical characteristics included a decrease in pH and increases in ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio and lactic acid content. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased and molds, yeasts and aerobic bacteria decreased. The bacterial communities and their predicted functions on day 0 were clearly different from those on day 7 to day 60. The relative abundances of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus increased. Nitrite ammonification and nitrate ammonification were more prevalent after day 0. The differences in the predicted functions were associated with differences in pH and amino acid, protein, carbohydrate, NH3-N, ether extract and crude ash contents.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Renata Miliani Martinez ◽  
Pedro Leonidas Oseliero Filho ◽  
Barbara Bianca Gerbelli ◽  
Wagner Vidal Magalhães ◽  
Maria Valéria Robles Velasco ◽  

Candelilla wax (CW) and 12-hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) are classic solid-fiber-matrix organogelators. Despite the high number of studies using those ingredients in oily systems, there is scarce literature using a mixture of oil and antioxidants. Vitamin E (VE) is an important candidate for its lipophilicity and several applications on pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. In this work, we investigated the influences of mixtures between vegetable oil (VO) and VE on the microstructures and rheological properties of CW and 12HSA organogels. A weak gel (G′′/G′ > 0.1) with a shear-thinning behavior was observed for all samples. The presence of VE impacted the gel strength and the phase transition temperatures in a dose-dependent pattern. Larger and denser packed crystals were seen for 12HSA samples, while smaller and more dispersed structures were obtained for CW organogels. The results obtained in this work allowed the correlation of the structural and mechanical properties of the organogels, which plays an important role in the physical-chemical characteristics of these materials.

M. Vinoth ◽  
M.S. Aswathy

Based on the available literature this paper evaluates the environmental effects of copper mine tailings (CMT) when used as structural fill material in various geotechnical applications. Leaching of heavy metals from the CMT is considered as the vital factor hindering its wider acceptability among researchers and engineers. Therefore, apart from physical and chemical characteristics, due consideration was given to assess the leachability of CMT when used as structural fill in various geotechnical applications like subgrade, embankment, fill and reclamation. From the literature review, it was found that CMT seems to be satisfying the criteria meant for structural fill. Leachability test results show that only a very few elements concentration exceeded the limits in un-stabilized form. Stabilized CMT performed better by bringing down the concentration well below the permissible limits in all the application types. This encourages the utilization of CMT in structural fills and shows that environmental impacts are within the limits prescribed in standards.

Olajide O B ◽  
Ogunsanwo O Y ◽  
Aguda L O ◽  
Oriire LT

Determining the variation of chemical properties of thermally treated Bambusa vulgaris is important to provide the information of the responses of the chemical constituents to the bamboo modification against biodegradation. This research was therefore conducted to determine the chemical properties of thermally modified Bambusa vulgaris. Two hundred and seventy (30 x 2 x 0.5 cm) bamboo strips dimension were thermally modified in a heat-chamber at 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C each, for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, under constant pressure (220 N/m2) in factorial arrangement in completely randomised design with 5 replicates. Unmodified strips served as control. Chemical characteristics (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash contents) were determined using standard procedures. The mean variation range of the control to 140°C/30 minutes of the thermally modified samples is as follows; the cellulose value ranged from 46.46±0.11% to 42.19±0.18%, hemicellulose from 35.59±0.10% to 31.80±0.01%, lignin from 29.11±0.12% to 26.17±0.13%, ash from 0.92±0.02% to 0.63±0.01%; the study also revealed that there were decrease in each chemical constituent value varies from a lower to a higher temperature and time regime proportionally except in the lignin content. Increase in temperature and time of thermal modification reduced the chemical characteristics of Bambusa vulgaris which resulted to reduction in the level of sugar contents (cellulose) of bamboo which enables it to be less attractive to both fungi and termite attack hence extending the service life of bamboo in use.

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