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Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Carol Moreno ◽  
Richard Greil ◽  
Fatih Demirkan ◽  
Alessandra Tedeschi ◽  
Bertrand Anz ◽  

iLLUMINATE is a randomized, open-label phase 3 study of ibrutinib plus obinutuzumab (n=113) versus chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (n=116) as first-line therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma. Eligible patients were aged ≥65 years, or

2022 ◽  
Mattia Russel Pantalone ◽  
Afsar Rahbar ◽  
Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler ◽  
Giuseppe Stragliotto

Abstract IntroductionGlioblastoma invariably recurs despite aggressive and multimodal first line treatment and no standardized second line therapy exists. We previously reported that treatment with the antiviral drug valganciclovir as an add-on to standard therapy significantly prolonged overall survival in 102 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Here we present the results of retrospective survival analyses including patients with glioblastoma that initiated valganciclovir therapy after recurrence. MethodsBetween April 13, 2007 and March 31, 2021, 29 patients with recurrent glioblastoma received valganciclovir as an add-on to second line therapy. Contemporary controls were 111 patients with glioblastoma who received similar second line therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed survival data of these patients. ResultsPatients with recurrent glioblastoma who received valganciclovir had longer median overall survival after recurrence than controls (12.1 vs 7.4 months, respectively, p=0.0017). The drug was well tolerated. Both patients who underwent re-operation and patients that were not re-operated after recurrence benefitted significantly from valganciclovir therapy. Valganciclovir prolonged survival after recurrence both in patients with an unmethylated or methylated MGMT promoter gene. ConclusionValganciclovir was safe to use and prolonged median survival after recurrence of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, re-operated or not after recurrence and with methylated or unmethylated MGMT promoter gene.

2022 ◽  
Daehun Kwag ◽  
Jae-Ho Yoon ◽  
Gi June Min ◽  
Sung-Soo Park ◽  
Silvia Park ◽  

Introduction: Although splenectomy has long been second-line option for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients, an indicator that reliably predicts the efficacy of splenectomy is still being explored. We investigated the treatment outcomes of splenectomy as a second-line therapy for relapsed/refractory ITP according to first-line intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responses. Methods: Fifty-two adult patients treated with splenectomy as second-line therapy for ITP between 2009 and 2019 were included, and they were classified according to first-line IVIG responses (no response to IVIG: non-responders; only transient IVIG response shorter than 4 weeks: poor responders; IVIG response for a longer period; stable responders). The efficacy of splenectomy was analyzed in the three subgroups. Results: Of the 52 patients, 10 were IVIG non-responders, 34 were poor responders, and the remaining eight were stable responders. Response to splenectomy was observed in 50.0% of IVIG non-responders, 94.1% of poor responders, and 100% of stable responders (p = 0.0030). Among the 45 patients who responded to splenectomy, 51.1% relapsed subsequently, and a significantly lower relapse rate was noted in the stable IVIG responders (12.5%, p = 0.0220) than in non-responders (60.0%) and poor responders (59.4%). Conclusions: First-line IVIG response is indicated as a useful predictive factor for response to splenectomy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qiao Liu ◽  
Zhen Zhou ◽  
Xia Luo ◽  
Lidan Yi ◽  
Liubao Peng ◽  

Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of the combination of pembrolizumab and chemotherapy (Pembro+Chemo) versus pembrolizumab monotherapy (Pembro) as the first-line treatment for metastatic non-squamous and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-L1expression ≥50%, respectively, from a US health care perspective.Material and Methods A comprehensive Makrov model were designed to compare the health costs and outcomes associated with first-line Pembro+Chemo and first-line Pembro over a 20-years time horizon. Health states consisted of three main states: progression-free survival (PFS), progressive disease (PD) and death, among which the PFS health state was divided into two substates: PFS while receiving first-line therapy and PFS with discontinued first-line therapy. Two scenario analyses were performed to explore satisfactory long-term survival modeling.Results In base case analysis, for non-squamous NSCLC patients, Pembro+Chemo was associated with a significantly longer life expectancy [3.24 vs 2.16 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)] and a substantially greater healthcare cost ($341,237 vs $159,055) compared with Pembro, resulting in an ICER of $169,335/QALY; for squamous NSCLC patients, Pembro+Chemo was associated with a slightly extended life expectancy of 0.22 QALYs and a marginal incremental cost of $3,449 compared with Pembro, resulting in an ICER of $15,613/QALY. Our results were particularly sensitive to parameters that determine QALYs. The first scenario analysis yielded lower ICERs than our base case results. The second scenario analysis founded Pembro+Chemo was dominated by Pembro.Conclusion For metastatic non-squamous NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%, first-line Pembro+Chemo was not cost-effective when compared with first-line Pembro. In contrast, for the squamous NSCLC patient population, our results supported the first-line Pembro+Chemo as a cost-effective treatment. Although there are multiple approaches that are used for extrapolating long-term survival, the optimal method has yet to be determined.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Giuseppe Losurdo ◽  
Ilaria Lacavalla ◽  
Francesco Russo ◽  
Giuseppe Riezzo ◽  
Irene Vita Brescia ◽  

The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may be difficult due to antibiotic resistance. Indeed, after one failure, a second-line therapy is needed and a bismuth containing quadruple therapy (BQT) with a three-in-one capsule formulation is becoming very popular. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate effectiveness and safety of BQT as a second-line therapy. We recruited consecutive patients with one therapy failure. For ten days patients received the three-in-one BQT Pylera® therapy, in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), decided at the choice of the investigator, at full dose bid. The eradication rate was calculated by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP)analyses and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Seventy-three patients were recruited, 41 females and 32 males (mean age 53.0±13.1 years). Fifty-five patients failed triple therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin and the remaining 18 received sequential therapy. Seventy-two patients consumed at least 90% of the capsules, while only one did not complete the therapy due to adverse events (nausea and diarrhea). By ITT analysis, BQT was successful in 62 subjects (eradication rate 84.9%, 95%CI 76.7–93.1%). By PP analysis, the eradication rate was 86.1% (95%CI 78.1–94.1%).Adverse events were observed in 14 subjects (20.5%).In conclusion, our report confirmed that BQT is effective as an empiric second-line regimen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shoujin Cao ◽  
Tianshi Lyu ◽  
Zeyang Fan ◽  
Haitao Guan ◽  
Li Song ◽  

Abstract Background/aim Recent studies have suggested that periportal location of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as one of the independent risk factors for local tumor progression (LTP). However, the long-term therapeutic outcomes of percutaneous RFA as the first-line therapy for single periportal HCCand corresponding impacts on tumor recurrence or progression are still unclear. Materials and methods From February 2011 to October 2020, a total of 233 patients with single nodular HCC ≤ 5 cm who underwent RFA ± transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as first-line therapy was enrolled and analyzed, including 56 patients in the periportal group and 177 patients in the nonperiportal group. The long-term therapeutic outcomes between the two groups were compared, risk factors of tumor recurrence or progression were evaluated. Results The LTP rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were significantly higher in the periportal group than those in the nonperiportal group (15.7, 33.7, and 46.9% vs 6.0, 15.7, and 28.7%, respectively, P = 0.0067). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates in the periportal group were significantly worse than those in the nonperiportal group (81.3, 65.1 and 42.9% vs 99.3, 90.4 and 78.1%, respectively, P<0.0001). In the subgroup of single HCC ≤ 3 cm, patients with periportal HCC showed significantly worse LTP P = 0.0006) and OS (P<0.0001) after RFA than patients with single nonperiportal HCC; The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that tumor size, periportal HCC and AFP ≥ 400ug/ml were independent prognostic factors for tumor progression after RFA. Furthermore, patients with single periportal HCC had significantly higher risk for IDR(P = 0.0012), PVTT(P<0.0001) and extrahepatic recurrence(P = 0.0010) after RFA than those patients with single nonperiportal HCC. . Conclusion The long-term therapeutic outcomes of RFA as the first-line therapy for single periportal HCC were worse than those for single nonperiportal HCC, an increased higher risk of tumor recurrence or progression after RFA was significantly associated with periportal HCC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 36-44
Ya.  A. Zhulikov ◽  
E.  I. Kovalenko ◽  
V.  Yu. Bokhian ◽  
E.  V. Artamonova

Adrenocortical cancer is an orphan tumor with poor prognosis. The combination of EDP chemotherapy regimen and mitotane is the standard for the first‑line therapy. But there are no effective options for the second and consequent lines of therapy. The standard of second‑line therapy is the combination of gemcitabine, capecitabine and mitotane, which provides an objective response in 4–7 % of patients. Achievement of the therapeutic concentration of mitotane is the most important predictive factor of efficiency of GemCap + mitotane regimen, and, therefore, it is recommended to continue mitotane therapy after progression to mitotane. Recently, many researches regarding the efficiency of targeted and immunotherapy of adrenocortical cancer have been published. However, there are no standards for the third and subsequent lines of treatment. This review outlines the current views and perspectives of systemic therapy for advanced and metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-30

Background/Aim: To evaluate the relationship between treatment period and overall survival (OS) and to identify clinical factors associated with OS in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients and Methods: Two hundred thirteen consecutive patients with mRCC receiving systemic therapy between 2008 and 2020 were divided into two groups: those starting first-line therapy in 2008-2015 (n=133) and those in 2016-2020 (n=80). Clinical factors associated with OS were retrospectively and statistically analyzed. Results: Median OS and one-, three- and five-year OS rates were not reached and 88.7%, 64.9%, and 64.9% in patients treated in 2016-2020; 31.4 months and 78.5%, 42.8% and 34.2% in 2008-2015 (p=0.0013). Multivariate analysis identified the period in which first-line therapy was started as the strongest predictor for OS (p=0.0002). Conclusion: OS was significantly better in mRCC patients treated in 2016-2020 than in 2008-2015. Treatment period was the strongest predictor for OS.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Franziska Haumaier ◽  
Anna Schneider-Fuchs ◽  
Steffen Backert ◽  
Michael Vieth ◽  
William Sterlacci ◽  

The treatment of infections by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has become more difficult due to increased rates of resistances against various antibiotics. Typically, atriple therapy, employing a combination of at least two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor, is used to cure H. pylori infections. In case of first-line therapy failure, quinolones are commonly applied in a second-line therapy. To prevent second-line treatment failures, we developed an improved method to detect the most common quinolone-resistance mutations located in the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the bacterial gyrA gene. Biopsy material from the gastric mucosa of infected patients was used to identify quinolone-resistant strains before the onset of drug administration. Two different wild-type and six mutant QRDR sequences were included. Melting curve analyses were performed with corresponding gyrA plasmid DNAs using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. By applying a combination of only two different fluorescent probes, this assay allows wild-type sequences to be unambiguously distinguished from all known mutant QRDR sequences of H. pylori. Next, the Tm values of patient DNAs were established, and the genotypes were confirmed by sequencing. Thus, quinolone-resistant H. pylori strains can be easily and quickly diagnosed before treatment, which will help to avoid the administration of ineffective drug regimes.

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