antiviral drug
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2022 ◽  
Mattia Russel Pantalone ◽  
Afsar Rahbar ◽  
Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler ◽  
Giuseppe Stragliotto

Abstract IntroductionGlioblastoma invariably recurs despite aggressive and multimodal first line treatment and no standardized second line therapy exists. We previously reported that treatment with the antiviral drug valganciclovir as an add-on to standard therapy significantly prolonged overall survival in 102 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Here we present the results of retrospective survival analyses including patients with glioblastoma that initiated valganciclovir therapy after recurrence. MethodsBetween April 13, 2007 and March 31, 2021, 29 patients with recurrent glioblastoma received valganciclovir as an add-on to second line therapy. Contemporary controls were 111 patients with glioblastoma who received similar second line therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed survival data of these patients. ResultsPatients with recurrent glioblastoma who received valganciclovir had longer median overall survival after recurrence than controls (12.1 vs 7.4 months, respectively, p=0.0017). The drug was well tolerated. Both patients who underwent re-operation and patients that were not re-operated after recurrence benefitted significantly from valganciclovir therapy. Valganciclovir prolonged survival after recurrence both in patients with an unmethylated or methylated MGMT promoter gene. ConclusionValganciclovir was safe to use and prolonged median survival after recurrence of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, re-operated or not after recurrence and with methylated or unmethylated MGMT promoter gene.

2022 ◽  
Piyush Baindara ◽  
Dinata Roy ◽  
Santi M. Mandal

Abstract COVID-19 pandemic is continue with thousands of new cases every day around the world, even then different vaccines have been developed and proven efficacious against SARS-CoV-2. Several know antivirals drugs have been repurposed or tested against SARS-CoV-2 but we still don’t have an effective therapeutic strategy to control this viral infection. Moreover, in the race of finding out an efficient antiviral, excess uses of antiviral drugs developed a selective pressure on the virus that results in the high frequency of mutations and the possible emergence of antiviral drug resistance against SARS-CoV-2. Omicron is a recently emerged, highly mutated variant of SARS-CoV-2, reported for high infectivity. In the present study, we performed molecular docking analysis between available potential antiviral drugs (remdesivir, nirmatrelvir, molnupiravir, EIDD-1931, GS-441524, and favipiravir) and omicron S protein including S protein/ACE2 complex. Our results suggest high infectivity of omicron, however, the known antiviral drugs were found efficacious against omicron variant. Further, to investigate the high infectivity of omicron, we performed a docking experiment between omicron S protein and neuropilin1 (NRP1). Surprisingly, results suggest high affinities with NRP1 than ACE2. Overall, results suggest that omicron favors NRP1 binding over ACE2, the possible reason behind improved infectivity of omicron variant.

2022 ◽  
Iara M Backes ◽  
Brook K Byrd ◽  
Chaya D Patel ◽  
Sean A Taylor ◽  
Callaghan R Garland ◽  

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections often result in significant mortality and neurological morbidity despite antiviral drug therapy. Maternally-transferred HSV-specific antibodies reduce the risk of clinically-overt neonatal HSV (nHSV), but this observation has not been translationally applied. Using a neonatal mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of HSV-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can prevent mortality and morbidity associated with nHSV. The mAbs were expressed in vivo by vectored immunoprophylaxis, or administered in vivo following recombinant expression in vitro. Through these maternally-derived routes or through direct administration to pups, diverse mAbs to HSV glycoprotein D protected against neonatal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. Using in vivo bioluminescent imaging, both pre- and post-exposure mAb treatment significantly reduced viral load. Administration of mAb also reduced nHSV-induced behavioral morbidity, as measured by anxiety-like behavior. Together these studies support the notion that HSV-specific mAb-based therapies may prevent or improve HSV infection outcomes in neonates.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jinliang Wang ◽  
Jie Luo ◽  
Zhiyuan Wen ◽  
Xinxin Wang ◽  
Lei Shuai ◽  

Some key mutations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, such as D614G and P681R mutations, increase the transmission or pathogenicity by enhancing the cleavage efficacy of spike protein by furin. Loss of the furin cleavage motif of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces the virulence and transmission, suggesting that furin is an attractive antiviral drug target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
P. Guisado-Vasco ◽  
M. M. Carralón-González ◽  
J. Aguareles-Gorines ◽  
E. M. Martí-Ballesteros ◽  
M. D. Sánchez-Manzano ◽  

Abstract Background There is an urgent need for highly efficacious antiviral therapies in immunosuppressed hosts who develop coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with special concern for those affected by hematological malignancies. Case presentation Here, we report the case of a 75-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who was deficient in CD19+CD20+ B-lymphocyte populations due to previous treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. The patient presented with severe COVID-19 pneumonia due to prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and was treated with two courses of the antiviral plitidepsin on a compassionate use basis. The patient subsequently achieved an undetectable viral load, and his pneumonia resolved. Conclusions Treatment with plitidepsin was well-tolerated without any further hematological or cardiovascular toxicities. This case further supports plitidepsin as a potential antiviral drug in SARS-CoV-2 patients affected by immune deficiencies and hematological malignancies.

Bioanalysis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Inas A Abdallah ◽  
Sherin F Hammad ◽  
Alaa Bedair ◽  
Ahmed H Elshafeey ◽  
Fotouh R Mansour

Background: Favipiravir is an antiviral drug that was recently approved for the management of COVID-19 infection. Aim: This work aimed to develop a new method, using sugaring-out induced homogeneous liquid–liquid microextraction followed by HPLC/UV for the determination of favipiravir in human plasma. Materials & methods: The optimum extraction conditions were attained using 500 μl of tetrahydrofuran as an extractant and 1400 mg of fructose as a phase-separating agent. Results: The developed method was validated according to the US FDA bioanalytical guidelines and was found linear in the range of 25-80,000 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. Conclusion: These results showed that the developed method was simple, easy, valid and adequately sensitive for determination of favipiravir in plasma for bioequivalence studies.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Kuan-Chi Tseng ◽  
Bang-Yan Hsu ◽  
Pin Ling ◽  
Wen-Wen Lu ◽  
Cheng-Wen Lin ◽  

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiological agent of hand foot and mouth disease and can also cause neurological complications in young children. However, there are no approved drugs as of yet to treat EV71 infections. In this study, we conducted antiviral drug screening by using a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library. We identified five drugs that showed dose-dependent inhibition of viral replication. Sertraline was further characterized because it exhibited the most potent antiviral activity with the highest selectivity index among the five hits. The antiviral activity of sertraline was noted for other EV serotypes. The drug’s antiviral effect is not likely associated with its approved indications as an antidepressant and its mode-of-action as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The time-of-addition assay revealed that sertraline inhibited an EV71 infection at the entry stage. We also showed that sertraline partitioned into acidic compartments, such as endolysosomes, to neutralize the low pH levels. In agreement with the findings, the antiviral effect of sertraline could be greatly relieved by exposing virus-infected cells to extracellular low-pH culture media. Ultimately, we have identified a use for an FDA-approved antidepressant in broad-spectrum EV inhibition by blocking viral entry through the alkalization of the endolysosomal route.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Lorena Urda ◽  
Matthias Heinrich Kreuter ◽  
Jürgen Drewe ◽  
Georg Boonen ◽  
Veronika Butterweck ◽  

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide, affecting over 250 million people and resulting in over five million deaths. Antivirals that are effective are still limited. The antiviral activities of the Petasites hybdridus CO2 extract Ze 339 were previously reported. Thus, to assess the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Ze 339 as well as isopetasin and neopetasin as major active compounds, a CPE and plaque reduction assay in Vero E6 cells was used for viral output. Antiviral effects were tested using the original virus (Wuhan) and the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. The antiviral drug remdesivir was used as control. Pre-treatment with Ze 339 in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells with either virus variant significantly inhibited virus replication with IC50 values of 0.10 and 0.40 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values obtained for isopetasin ranged between 0.37 and 0.88 μM for both virus variants, and that of remdesivir ranged between 1.53 and 2.37 μM. In conclusion, Ze 339 as well as the petasins potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro of the Wuhan and Delta variants. Since time is of essence in finding effective treatments, clinical studies will have to demonstrate if Ze339 can become a therapeutic option to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Mya Myat Ngwe Tun ◽  
Takaya Sakura ◽  
Yasuteru Sakurai ◽  
Yohei Kurosaki ◽  
Daniel Ken Inaoka ◽  

Abstract Background Genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to emerge in 2020 and have been spreading globally during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite the presence of different COVID-19 vaccines, the discovery of effective antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are still urgently needed. A natural amino acid, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), has exhibited both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. In a previous study, we demonstrated an in vitro antiviral effect of 5-ALA against SARS-CoV-2 infection without significant cytotoxicity. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether 5-ALA with or without sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) can inhibit in vitro both the original SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and its variants, including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta strains. Methods The antiviral activity of ALA with or without SFC was determined in Vero-E6 cell. The virus inhibition was quantified by real time RT-PCR. Results Co-administration of 5-ALA and SFC inhibited the Wuhan, Alpha and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 with IC50 values of 235, 173 and 397 µM, respectively, and the Beta and Gamma variants with IC50 values of 1311 and 1516 µM. Conclusion Our study suggests that 5-ALA with SFC warrants accelerated clinical evaluation as an antiviral drug candidate for treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants.

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