Mutated JAK3 has been considered a promising target for cancer therapy. Activating mutations of JAK3 are observed in 3.9%–10% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, but it is unclear whether AML cells are sensitive to JAK3 inhibitors, and no disease-related human AML cell model has been reported. We have identified U937 as the first human AML cell line expressing the JAK3M511I activated mutation and confirmed that JAK3 inhibitors sensitively suppress the proliferation of U937 AML cells.
Tourists bite off more than they can chew at hotel breakfast buffets. Food waste from hotel buffets means unnecessary food cost for hotels as well as an unnecessary burden on the environment. The present study measured food waste at a hotel breakfast buffet and identified the following guest and breakfast characteristics as being significantly associated with higher plate waste: more children in the guest mix, more Russians and less Austrians or Germans, fewer hotel guests in the breakfast buffet area as well as more buffet stations being set up. These insights contribute to knowledge on environmental sustainability in tourism, pointing to interesting market segments for targeting in high demand periods as well as promising target segments for interventions (e.g., families) and indicate that simple measures such as rearrangements of the breakfast room may reduce food waste.
Worldwide prevalence of obesity is associated with the increase of lifestyle-related diseases. The accumulation of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is considered a major problem whereby obesity leads to sarcopenia and metabolic disorders and thus is a promising target for treating these pathological conditions. However, whereas obesity-associated IMAT is suggested to originate from PDGFRα+ mesenchymal progenitors, processes underlying their adipogenesis remain largely unexplored. Here, we comprehensively investigated intra- and extracellular changes associated with these processes using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) and mass spectrometry. Our scRNA-Seq analysis identified a small PDGFRα+ cell population in obese mice directed strongly toward adipogenesis. Proteomic analysis showed that the appearance of this cell population is accompanied by an increase in galectin-3 in interstitial environments, which was found to activate adipogenic PPARγ signals in PDGFRα+ cells. Moreover, IMAT formation during muscle regeneration was significantly suppressed in galectin-3 KO mice. Our findings, together with these multi-omics datasets, could unravel microenvironmental networks during muscle regeneration highlighting possible therapeutic targets against IMAT formation in obesity.
HIF-1α is a key factor promoting the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As well, AKT-AMPKα-mTOR signaling is a promising target for cancer therapy. Yet, the AKT-AMPKα-mTOR-dependent activation of HIF-1α has not been studied in livers with HCC. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential antineoplastic effects of sitagliptin (STGPT), an antidiabetic agent, have not yet been elucidated. For that purpose, the N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced HCC mouse model was used in the present study using a dose of 100 mg/kg/week, i.p., for 8 weeks. NDEA-induced HCC mice received STGPT 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg starting on day 61 up to day 120. The present study revealed that STGPT inhibited HIF-1α activation via the interference with the AKT-AMPKα-mTOR axis and the interruption of IKKβ, P38α, and ERK1/2 signals as well. Accordingly, STGPT prolonged the survival, restored the histological features and improved liver function. Additionally, STGPT inhibited angiogenesis, as revealed by a significant downregulation in the VEGF and mRNA expression of CD309 with concomitant inhibition of tissue invasion was evident by an increased ratio of TIMP-1/MMP-2. STGPT exhibited apoptotic stimulatory effect as indicated upon calculating the BCL-2/Bax ratio and by the gene expression of p53. The decrease in AFP and liver index calculation, gene expression of Ki-67 confirmed the antiproliferative activity of STGPT. The anti-inflammatory potential was revealed by the decreased TNF-α level and the downregulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Moreover, an antifibrotic potential was supported by lower levels of TGF-β. These effects appear to be GLP1R-independent. The present study provides a potential basis for repurposing STGPT for the inhibition of HCC progression. Since STGPT is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia, it may be promising as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy to treat diabetic or even normoglycemic patients with HCC.
Telomerase, a reverse transcriptase enzyme involved in DNA synthesis, has a tangible role in tumor progression. Several studies have evidenced telomerase as a promising target for developing cancer therapeutics. The main reason is due to the overexpression of telomerase in cancer cells (85–90%) compared with normal cells where it is almost unexpressed. In this paper, we used a structure-based approach to design potential inhibitors of the telomerase active site. The MYSHAPE (Molecular dYnamics SHared PharmacophorE) approach and docking were used to screen an in-house library of 126 arylsulfonamide derivatives. Promising compounds were synthesized using classical and green methods. Compound 2C revealed an interesting IC50 (33 ± 4 µM) against the K-562 cell line compared with the known telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 IC50 (208 ± 11 µM) with an SI ~10 compared to the BALB/3-T3 cell line. A 100 ns MD simulation of 2C in the telomerase active site evidenced Phe494 as the key residue as well as in BIBR1532. Each moiety of compound 2C was involved in key interactions with some residues of the active site: Arg557, Ile550, and Gly553. Compound 2C, as an arylsulfonamide derivative, is an interesting hit compound that deserves further investigation in terms of optimization of its structure to obtain more active telomerase inhibitors
Digestive tumours, a common kind of malignancy worldwide, have recently led to the most tumour-related deaths. Angiogenesis, the process of forming novel blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is involved in various physiological and pathological processes in the body. Many studies suggest that abnormal angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of digestive tumours. Therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy is considered a promising target for improving therapeutic efficacy. Traditional strategies such as bevacizumab and regorafenib can target and block the activity of proangiogenic factors to treat digestive tumours. However, due to resistance and some limitations, such as poor pharmacokinetics, their efficacy is not always satisfactory. In recent years, nanotechnology-based anti-angiogenic therapies have emerged as a new way to treat digestive tumours. Compared with commonly used drugs, nanoparticles show great potential in tumour targeted delivery, controlled drug release, prolonged cycle time, and increased drug bioavailability. Therefore, anti-angiogenic nanoparticles may be an effective complementary therapy to treat digestive tumours. In this review, we outline the different mechanisms of angiogenesis, the effects of nanoparticles on angiogenesis, and their biomedical applications in various kinds of digestive tumours. In addition, the opportunities and challenges are briefly discussed.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially in its inflammatory form (steatohepatitis, NASH), is closely related to the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. Despite substantial advances in the management of NAFLD/NASH in recent years, there are currently no efficacious therapies for its treatment. The biogenesis and expansion of lipid droplets (LDs) are critical pathophysiological processes in the development of NAFLD/NASH. In the past decade, increasing evidence has demonstrated that lipid droplet-associated proteins may represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH given the critical role they play in regulating the biogenesis and metabolism of lipid droplets. Recently, HSD17B13, a newly identified liver-enriched, hepatocyte-specific, lipid droplet-associated protein, has been reported to be strongly associated with the development and progression of NAFLD/NASH in both mice and humans. Notably, human genetic studies have repeatedly reported a robust association of HSD17B13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the occurrence and severity of NAFLD/NASH and other chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Here we briefly overview the discovery, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization of HSD17B13 and highlight its important role in promoting the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH in both experimental animal models and patients. We also discuss the potential of HSD17B13 as a promising target for the development of novel therapeutic agents for NAFLD/NASH.
Background Increased CCKBR expression density or frequency has been reported in many neoplasms.
Objective We aimed to investigate whether CCKBR drives the growth of gastric cancer (GC) and its potential as a therapeutic target of immunotoxins.
Methods A lentiviral interference system was used to generate CCKBR-knockdown gastric cancer cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 and clonogenic assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Wound-healing and cell invasion assays were performed to evaluate cell mobility. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Tumor growth in vivo was investigated using a heterologous tumor transplantation model in nude mice. In addition, we generated the immunotoxin FQ17P and evaluated the combining capacity and tumor cytotoxicity of FQ17P in vitro.
Results Stable downregulation of CCKBR expression resulted in reduced proliferation, migration and invasion of BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells. The impact of CCKBR on gastric cancer cells was further verified through CCKBR overexpression studies. Downregulation of CCKBR expression also inhibited the growth of gastric tumors in vivo. Furthermore, FQ17P killed CCKBR-overexpressing GC cells by specifically binding to CCKBR on the tumor cell surface.
Conclusion The CCKBR protein drives the growth, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells, and it might be a promising target for immunotoxin therapy based on its aberrant expression, functional binding interactions with gastrin, and subsequent internalization.
VEGFR-2 enzyme known for physiological functioning of the cell also involves in pathological angiogenesis and tumor progression. Recently VEGFR-2 has gained the interest of researchers all around the world as a promising target for the drug design and discovery of new anticancer agents. VEGFR2 inhibitors are a major class of anticancer agents used for clinical purposes. In silico methods like virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, pharmacophore modeling, and other computational approaches help extensively in identifying the main molecular interactions necessary for the binding of the small molecules with the respective protein target to obtain the expected pharmacological potency. In this chapter, we discussed some representative case studies of in silico
techniques used to determine molecular interactions and rational drug design of VEGFR-2 inhibitors as anticancer agents.
The generation and expansion of functionally competent NK cells in vitro is of great interest for their application in immunotherapy of cancer. Since CD33 constitutes a promising target for immunotherapy of myeloid malignancies, NK cells expressing a CD33-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) were generated. Unexpectedly, we noted that CD33-CAR NK cells could not be efficiently expanded in vitro due to a fratricide-like process in which CD33-CAR NK cells killed other CD33-CAR NK cells that had upregulated CD33 in culture. This upregulation was dependent on the stimulation protocol and encompassed up to 50% of NK cells including CD56dim NK cells that do generally not express CD33 in vivo. RNAseq analysis revealed that upregulation of CD33+ NK cells was accompanied by a unique transcriptional signature combining features of canonical CD56bright (CD117high, CD16low) and CD56dim NK cells (high expression of granzyme B and perforin). CD33+ NK cells exhibited significantly higher mobilization of cytotoxic granula and comparable levels of cytotoxicity against different leukemic target cells compared to the CD33− subset. Moreover, CD33+ NK cells showed superior production of IFNγ and TNFα, whereas CD33− NK cells exerted increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In summary, the study delineates a novel functional divergence between NK cell subsets upon in vitro stimulation that is marked by CD33 expression. By choosing suitable stimulation protocols, it is possible to preferentially generate CD33+ NK cells combining efficient target cell killing and cytokine production, or alternatively CD33− NK cells, which produce less cytokines but are more efficient in antibody-dependent applications.