Heating Water
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1211 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
V P Gorshenin ◽  
A N Kachanov ◽  
VA Chernyshov ◽  
D A Korenkov ◽  
V V Maksimov

Abstract The consumption and temperature of hot water produced by boiler units are calculated using such a quantity as the consumption of the consumed network water. The formulas represent functional dependencies connecting the obtained values not only with the consumption of heating water, but also with the consumption of hot water supplied for recirculation, for own needs and for the needs of the fuel economy. They take into account the losses of network and hot water. The formulas are obtained as a result of the joint solution of the equation for the total consumption of hot water and the equation for its partial costs.

2021 ◽  
Rhiannon Boseley ◽  
Jitraporn Vongsvivut ◽  
Dominique Appadoo ◽  
Mark Hackett ◽  
Simon Lewis

Degradation of fingermark residue has a major impact on the successful forensic detection of latent fingermarks. The time course of degradation has been previously explored with bulk chemical analyses, but little is known about chemical alterations at the micron-scale. Here we report the use of synchrotron-sourced attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscopy to provide spatio-temporal resolution of chemical changes within fingermark droplets, as a function of time since deposition. Eccrine and sebaceous material within natural fingermark droplets were imaged on the micron scales at hourly intervals for the first 6 – 12 hours after deposition, revealing that substantial dehydration occurred within the first 8 hours. Changes to lipid material was more varied, with samples exhibiting an increase or decrease in lipid concentration due to the degradation and redistribution of this material. Across 12 donors, it was noticeable that the initial chemical composition and morphology of the droplet varied greatly, which appeared to influence on the rate of change of the droplet over time. Further, this study attempted to quantify the total water content within fingermark samples. The wide-spread nature and strength of the absorption of Terahertz/Far-infrared (THz/Far-IR) radiation by water vapour molecules were exploited for this purpose, using THz/Far-IR spectroscopy. Upon heating, water confined in natural fingermarks was evaporated and expanded in a vacuum chamber equipped with multipass optics. The amount of water vapour was then quantified by high-spectral resolution analysis, and fingermarks were observed to lose approximately 14 – 20 µg of water. The combination of both ATR-FTIR and Far-IR highlight important implications for experimental design in fingermark research, and operational practices used by law enforcement agencies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 49-54
Ihor Hryhorenko ◽  
Serhii Kondrashov ◽  
Svіtlana Hryhorenko

The paper considers the solution of scientific and practical problem of development and research of control system of parameters of environment of artificial ecosystem, creation of structural and basic electric scheme of system, drawing up of algorithm of its work. The study consists of statistical processing of the results of direct repeated measurements of soluble oxygen level, pH, temperature in the aquarium of the artificial ecosystem, analysis of errors and total standard uncertainty of measurement results, construction of a system with fuzzy logic to determine the impact of aquatic parameters on aquarium water quality. The system makes it possible to measure illuminance up to 45,000 lux, air temperature in the range from 12 to 42 0C, water temperature in the range from 15 to 28 0C, pH level from 5 to 9, dissolved oxygen level from 5 to 10 mg / l, has a proximity sensor , has the ability to turn on, if necessary, heating, water aeration, additional light sources. The measurement error on each of the channels does not exceed 2.5%. The need to create a control system arose due to the fact that there is a need to ensure the natural development of plants and fish in an artificial ecosystem that mimics the environment as close as possible to the natural one. In order for the ecosystem to perform its functions, it is necessary to timely control these parameters and respond quickly to the parameters exceeding the critical values. This task can be accomplished only by creating a control system. In order to bring people closer to the wildlife of exotic countries of the world, you can create corners of wildlife at school, enterprise, institution. An artificial ecosystem, which is a clear and versatile example of wildlife, will help students in the formation of a new culture of relationships with nature, the environment, and allow workers to relax morally by observing wildlife. Such a fruitful rest affects the recovery of people. The artificial ecosystem helps to involve children with talent in research work, in designing projects, performing works related to creativity.

Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 257
Rubén D. Múnera-Tangarife ◽  
Efraín Solarte-Rodríguez ◽  
Carlos Vélez-Pasos ◽  
Claudia I. Ochoa-Martínez

Intensive research on biodegradable films based on natural raw materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) has been performed because it enables the production of transparent films with suitable barrier properties against oxygen and fats. Considering the importance of the production of this type of film at the industrial level, a scalable and continuous drying method is required. Refractance window-conductive hydro drying (RW-CHD) is a sustainable and energy-efficient method with high potential in drying this kind of compound. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors (CMC thickness, heating water temperature, and film type) and radiation penetration depth that affect drying time and energy consumption. It was found that drying time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing thickness. Similarly, energy consumption decreased with decreasing temperature and thickness. However, the drying time and energy consumed per unit weight of product obtained were equivalent when drying at any of the thicknesses evaluated. Film type had little effect on time and energy consumption compared to the effects of temperature and CMC thickness. The radiation penetration depth into the CMC was determined to be 1.20 ± 0.19 mm. When the thickness was close to this value, the radiation energy was better utilized, which was reflected in a higher heating rate at the beginning of drying.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13040
Brent B. Skabelund ◽  
Joseph Elio ◽  
Ryan J. Milcarek

Combined heat and power (CHP) systems with an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology to increase overall efficiency of traditional residential combustion systems. One potential system is gas tank hot water heaters where partial oxidation of the fuel serves as a means of fuel reforming for SOFCs while producing thermal energy for heating water. In this study, a residential hybrid gas tank hot water heater with an integrated SOFC model was developed and a thorough techno-economic analysis was performed. Fuel-rich combustion characterization was performed at equivalence ratios 1.1 to 1.6 to assess synthesis gas production for the SOFC. The effect of fuel utilization and operating voltage of the model SOFC stack were analyzed to provide an in-depth characterization of the potential of the system. CHP and electrical efficiencies over >90% and >16% were achieved, respectively. The techno-economic analysis considers the four major census regions of the United States to evaluate regional savings based on respective utility costs and hot water demand. The results show the hybrid system is economically feasible for replacement of an electrical water heater with the longest payback period being approximately six years.

Bandi Sai Mukesh ◽  
Sudipto Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Ashish Mondal ◽  
Laltu Chandra

Abstract Solar thermal energy systems are future sustainable solutions for both domestic as well as industrial use. Solar thermal systems operating in medium temperature range (373-673 K) require concentrated solar-thermal heating (CSH). In this work, a comprehensive numerical tool is developed to design and study multipurpose on-sun CSH system. The model uses a combined Monte-Carlo ray tracing, finite difference method and all heat transfer modes. The model is validated with in-house experiment, which demonstrates its predictive capability. Next, the tool is used to optimise the cavity receiver geometry and predict the performance of the optimised CSH system under different direct normal irradiance (DNI) conditions. A CSH system using Therminol D12 as HTF is presented. Therminol D12 HTF based system is predicted to take longer time than the system using water as HTF, for heating water to a specified temperature because of the heat exchanger effectiveness. However, the designed CSH system using Therminol D12 can attain higher temperatures than water without pressurization and through the heat exchanger can be used as multipurpose system suitable for cooking, laundry, sterilization, process industry etc.

I. I. Lapuka ◽  
V. V. Vezhnavets

The changes abundance zoobenthos at the heated zone and non-heated zone on the different depths in summer and autumn was studying in this article. In the heated zone, the abundance was 1.5‒2 times higher than in the non-heated zone in summer and autumn. The basis of the number zoobenthos was oligochaete-chironomid complex. Number distributions zoobenthos was similar to the heated zone and non-heated zone in the summer and autumn.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2658
Tao Wang ◽  
Nana She ◽  
Mengnan Wang ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Jiaxing Qin ◽  

The effects of storage temperature on the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice were investigated in this study. The samples were vacuum-packed in nylon/polyethylene pouches and stored at 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C for 12 weeks. The moisture content decreased as storage time was prolonged. Rice stored at 15 °C and 25 °C had a lower falling range of water content compared to the samples stored at 35 °C. Free fatty acid values increased fastest when samples were stored at a high temperature, and the rise can be effectively delayed at low temperatures. The pH of residual cooking water and adhesiveness decreased, while the heating water absorption rate and hardness increased during storage for red and brown rice. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results indicate that water molecules migrated, the binding force of H protons became stronger and the bonds between molecules became closer with increased storage duration. Temperature had an obvious correlation with starch granules and protein structure, characterized by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Low temperatures significantly retarded those changes. The results indicate that storage temperature is a vital factor affecting the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice and provided reference and theoretical basis for the actual storage of red brown rice.

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