Biomass Structure
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Agustin Krisna Wardani ◽  
Aji Sutrisno ◽  
Titik Nur Faida ◽  
Retno Dwi Yustina ◽  
Untung Murdiyatmo

Background. Oil palm trunk (OPT) with highly cellulose content is a valuable bioresource for bioethanol production. To produce ethanol from biomass, pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose. Several pretreatment methods have been developed to overcome biomass recalcitrance. In this study, the effects of different pretreatment methods such as alkali pretreatment, microwave-alkali, and alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave on the lignocellulosic biomass structure were investigated. Moreover, ethanol production from the treated biomass was performed by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) under different temperatures, fermentation times, and cell ratios of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 479 and pentose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis NCYC 1541. Results. Pretreatment resulted in a significant lignin removal up to 83.26% and cellulose released up to 80.74% in treated OPT by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method. Enzymatic hydrolysis of treated OPT resulted in an increase in fermentable sugar up to 93.22%. Optimization of SSCF by response surface method showed that the coculture could work together to produce maximum ethanol (1.89%) and fermentation efficiency (66.14%) under the optimized condition. Conclusion. Pretreatment by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method and SSCF process could be expected as a promising system for ethanol production from oil palm trunk and various lignocellulosic biomass.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1800
Zhaojia Li ◽  
Houben Zhao ◽  
Guangyi Zhou ◽  
Zhijun Qiu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  

Accurate estimation of forest biomass and its growth potential could be important in assessing the mitigation potential of forest for climate change. However, severe mechanical disturbance such as stem breakage imposed significant changes to tree individuals in biomass structure, which could bring new inaccuracy to biomass estimation. In order to investigate the influence of severe mechanical disturbance on tree biomass accumulation and to construct accurate models for biomass and carbon storage estimation, this paper analyzed the relationship between tree size and biomass for China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) which suffered stem breakage from, and survived, an ice storm. The performance of independent variables diameter (D) and height (H) of China fir, were also compared in biomass estimation. The results showed that D as an independent variable was adequate in biomass estimation for China fir, and tree height was not necessary in this case. Root growth was faster in China fir which had suffered breakage in the main stem by the ice storm, than China fir which were undamaged for at least 7 years after the mechanical disturbance, which, in addition to biomass loss in stem, caused changes in the allocation pattern of the damaged trees. This suggests biomass models constructed before severe mechanical disturbance would be less suitable in application for a subsequent period, and accurate estimations of biomass and forest carbon storage would take more effort.

2021 ◽  
Karen L. M. Catunda ◽  
Amber C. Churchill ◽  
Sally A. Power ◽  
Haiyang Zhang ◽  
Kathryn J. Fuller ◽  

In the face of a changing climate, research indicates that more frequent and severe drought conditions are critical problems that will constrain production of high-quality forage and influence the performance of grazing animals in the future. In addition, the duration of drought and potential trade-offs between plant morphology and nutritional composition may influence plant drought adaptation strategies across pasture species, and the consequences for forage quality are not well understood. Here we present the results of a study investigating the effects of drought on biomass productivity, dead material, leaf:stem biomass allocation and nutritional composition (whole-plant and tissue-specific) across nine diverse pasture species. For this, we conducted a field experiment exposing species to a 6-month period of simulated severe drought (60% rainfall reduction during winter and spring) and samples were collected at multiple harvests. We found that drought had different, harvest-specific effects on plant biomass structure and nutritional composition among pasture species. The severity of drought impacts on productivity, but not on nutritional quality, increased with drought duration. In general, drought strongly reduced productivity, increased the percentage of dead material and had mixed effects (increases, decreases and no effect) on leaf:stem ratio and concentrations of crude protein, non-structural carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre and lignin. Changes in plant-level nutritional quality were driven by simultaneous changes in both leaf and stem tissues for most, but not all, species. Our findings may be especially helpful for selection of adapted species/cultivars that could minimize potential drought risks on forage, thereby optimising pasture performance under future drought scenarios.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2533
Anna-Lovisa Nynäs ◽  
William R. Newson ◽  
Eva Johansson

Green biomass has potential as a sustainable protein source for human consumption, due to its abundance and favorable properties of its main protein, RuBisCO. Here, protein fractionation outcomes of green leafy biomass from nine crops were evaluated using a standard protocol with three major steps: juicing, thermal precipitation, and acid precipitation. Successful protein fractionation, with a freeze-dried, resolubilized white protein isolate containing RuBisCO as the final fraction, was achieved for seven of the crops, although the amount and quality of the resulting fractions differed considerably between crops. Biomass structure was negatively correlated with successful fractionation of proteins from biomass to green juice. The proteins in carrot and cabbage leaves were strongly associated with particles in the green juice, resulting in unsuccessful fractionation. Differences in thermal stability were correlated with relatedness of the biomass types, e.g., Beta vulgaris varieties showed similar performance in thermal precipitation. The optimal pH values identified for acid precipitation of soluble leaf proteins were lower than the theoretical value for RuBisCO for all biomass types, but with clear differences between biomass types. These findings reveal the challenges in using one standard fractionation protocol for production of food proteins from all types of green biomass and indicate that a general fractionation procedure where parameters are easily adjusted based on biomass type should instead be developed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Tommaso Martinelli ◽  
Karin Baumann ◽  
Andreas Börner

Abstract Milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), is an economically important medicinal plant utilized for silymarin production. Moreover, the species has been positively evaluated for vegetable oil and biomass production. Despite these positive characteristics, milk thistle is still marked by traits that are typical of undomesticated species (most importantly natural fruit dispersal at maturity) and requires further genetic improvement for its complete exploitation. This manuscript summarizes all the information collected through time about a collection of nine milk thistle wild and mutant lines and it discusses the possible further utilization of these genotypes. The accessions are characterized by interesting traits related to: fruit silymarin composition (S. marianum chemotype A and B), fruit fatty acid composition (high oleic and high stearic acid lines), fruit condensed tannins content, vegetative biomass composition (modification of xylans or lignin content), vegetative biomass structure (dwarf and tall lines), modifications of leaf variegation (hypervareigated line) and different types of fruit shatter resistance at maturity. All the lines underwent subsequent generations of selfing and are stable for all the described traits. The accessions will be made available at the Genebank of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK, Gatersleben) and may prove to be a useful genetic material for the improvement of qualitative fruit traits (silymarin quality, fatty acid composition) and for the further development of shatter-resistant S. marianum genotypes towards the complete domestication of this promising species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 111698
Hwai Chyuan Ong ◽  
Kai Ling Yu ◽  
Wei-Hsin Chen ◽  
Ma Katreena Pillejera ◽  
Xiaotao Bi ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 121513
Caiwei Wang ◽  
Shouyu Zhang ◽  
Si Huang ◽  
Zhongyao Cao ◽  
Jiaqing Xu ◽  

Biomass ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Prathima Gujjula ◽  
Narendra Kumar ◽  
Joan G. Lynam

Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are new ‘green’ solvents that have a high potential for biomass processing because of their low cost, low toxicity, biodegradability, and easy recycling. When Loblolly pine trees are harvested, their branches with needles are typically left in brush piles and decompose very slowly. Exploring the effect of DES pretreatment on waste pine needles was the goal of the present work. Loblolly pine needles were treated with three types of DES to prepare the biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis to glucose, a subject not readily found in the literature. The resulting products were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fiber analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Glucose yields after pretreatment and hydrolysis were found to be six times that for untreated biomass with two of the DES. Fiber analysis indicated removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and ash from the needle biomass. Enhanced glucose yield was due to removal of lignin and disruption of biomass structure during pretreatment, so that the pretreated biomass was rich in cellulosic content. Based on the results shown in this study, among the three types of DES, formic acid:choline chloride and acetic acid:choline chloride pretreatment had better potential for biomass pretreatment compared to lactic acid:choline chloride.

heena Parveen ◽  
Lakshmi Tewari ◽  
Diwas Pradhan ◽  
Parul Chaudhary

Bamboo biomass is a potential source for the production of monomeric sugars containing high cellulose content with low amount of lignin. However, for efficient hydrolysis, the biomass treatment by effective pretreatment technique is required to minimize lignin content and other barrier components. During present study, the bamboo biomass was treated with different physical, chemical, biological and combined treatments to reduce the lignin content. Among all the pretreatments, the maximum lignin removal (14.5%) was obtained with the combined chemical and biological treatment under 2% NaOH+1% H2O2 +WDP2 fungal culture (5 plugs) conditions. In addition, lignolytic fungus and NaOH pretreatment was mainly effective in removing lignin, whereas the H2O2 pretreatment efficiently minimize cellulose crystallinity. To analyze structural changes of raw and treated biomass, we used scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural analysis indicated that all treatments causes disruption in the biomass structure and loses the compactness of the biomass which facilitates the biomass conversion during hydrolysis process. The findings of the present study indicate effective pretreatment methods in breaching the recalcitrancy of the potential lignocellulosic biomass for maximum hydrolysis.

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