Fungal Culture
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Edurne Baroja-Fernández ◽  
Goizeder Almagro ◽  
Ángela María Sánchez-López ◽  
Abdellatif Bahaji ◽  
Samuel Gámez-Arcas ◽  

Plants communicate with microorganisms by exchanging chemical signals throughout the phytosphere. Such interactions are important not only for plant productivity and fitness, but also for terrestrial ecosystem functioning. It is known that beneficial microorganisms emit diffusible substances including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that promote growth. Consistently, soil application of cell-free culture filtrates (CF) of beneficial soil and plant-associated microorganisms enhances plant growth and yield. However, how this treatment acts in plants and whether it alters the resident soil microbiota, are largely unknown. In this work we characterized the responses of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultured under both greenhouse and open field conditions and of soil microbiota to soil application of CFs of beneficial and phytopathogenic fungi. To evaluate the contribution of VOCs occurring in the CFs to these responses, we characterized the responses of plants and of soil microbiota to application of distillates (DE) of the fungal CFs. CFs and their respective DEs contained the same potentially biogenic VOCs, and application of these extracts enhanced root growth and fruit yield, and altered the nutritional characteristics of fruits. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S and fungal ITS rRNA genes of the soil microbiota revealed that the CF and DE treatments altered the microbial community compositions, and led to strong enrichment of the populations of the same beneficial bacterial and fungal taxa. Our findings show that CFs of both beneficial and phytopathogenic fungi can be used as biostimulants, and provide evidence that VOCs occurring in the fungal CFs act as mediators of the plants’ responses to soil application of fungal CFs through stimulation of the beneficial soil microbiota.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 422-426
Refka Frioui ◽  
Kahena Jaber ◽  
Latifa Mtibaa

Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a granulomatous mycosis rarely described outside tropical countries. Degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is its most serious complication. We report the first case of nasal CBM degenerating into SCC. In 2006, a sixty-year-old male presented himself with an infiltrated plaque on the right thigh. The diagnosis of CBM was confirmed by the presence of fungal elements. In 2019, the patient had developed a mass coming from the right nasal cavity. It had rapidly involved the nasal dorsum. An ulcer-budding nasal tumor and an elevated erythematous and verrucous plaque on the thigh were noted. A biopsy revealed a granulomatous dermis with fungal elements. Other nasal biopsy fragments showed differentiated SCC. A fungal culture inoculated with tissue from both lesions showed dark colonies. The diagnosis of nasal CBM with SCC degeneration was reached. The patient presented asymptomatic endonasal CBM that had slowly evolved and recently degenerated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 374-380
Rabiya Bashir ◽  
Naina Kala Dogra ◽  
Bella Mahajan

Background: Chronic dermatophytosis is a considerable challenge in routine clinical practice. There is, however, scarce information available in the literature on its extent and characteristics. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the host-related factors of chronic dermatophytosis and to identify the common fungal isolates. Methods: The study enrolled a total of 145 cases of chronic dermatophytosis attending the out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital in Jammu from November 2017 through October 2018. A detailed history was taken, followed by a clinical examination and investigations such as routine baseline investigations, an absolute eosinophil count, a wet mount for direct microscopy, and a fungal culture. Results: The most common presentation was tinea corporis with tinea cruris (33.1%), followed by tinea corporis alone. The majority of the patients (54.5%) had more than 20% of the body surface area involved. Most of the patients were manual workers (n = 44; 30.3%). The number of hours of sun exposure varied between 1 to 8.5 hours (mean ± SD: 3.53 ± 1.75 h). The fungal culture was positive in 65 (44.8%) patients. The most frequent isolates were Trichophyton mentagrophytes (53.8%), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (38.5%). Conclusion: We found Trichophyton mentagrophytes the predominant pathogen in chronic dermatophytosis, followed by Trichophyton rubrum, which demonstrates a changing trend as far as the causative organism is considered. Besides, various risk factors for chronicity such as prolonged sun exposure, lack of proper hygiene, wearing tight-fitting synthetic clothes, the use of topical steroids, and non-compliance to treatment were identified.

Elias Alisaac ◽  
Monika Götz

AbstractPeppermint is an important medicinal plant, and it is known for its essential oils and phenolic acids. Verticillium wilt is a vascular disease resulted from several Verticillium spp. causing significant economic losses in peppermint cultivation. In this study, the fungus Gibellulopsis nigrescens (syn. Verticillium nigrescens) was isolated from symptomless peppermint plants during the regular control of Verticillium wilt on peppermint in Germany. A pure fungal culture was prepared, and fungal DNA was extracted. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), beta-tubulin (TUB), and translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) were amplified, sequenced, and deposited in the GenBank. These sequences are located within the Gibellulopsis nigrescens cluster. Koch’s postulate was fulfilled, and the fungus was re-isolated from the inoculated plants. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report of Gibellulopsis nigrescens on peppermint in Germany.

2021 ◽  
Kabita Gurung ◽  
Khashti Dasila ◽  
Bahadur Singh Bamaniya ◽  
Anita Pandey ◽  
Laxuman Sharma ◽  

Abstract Large cardamom (Amommum subulatum Roxb.) a high valued spice crop grown in Sikkim Himalaya is now facing a devastating leaf blight disease that has brought down the yield drastically. Present study was focused on identification of this major fungal pathogen based on the morphological and molecular characterization. During this study infected leaves of large cardamom with blighted appearance were collected from all the four districts of Sikkim. The pathogen was isolated using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium, incubated at 25°C. The mycelium was septate, hyaline, and 2-4 µm wide. The conidiospores were cylindrical with both ends rounded, sometimes oblong. Length and breadth were 11-12 µm and 3-4 µm, respectively. On the basis colony morphology, growth and microscopic observations, out of the total 48 samples studied Colletotrichum sp. was identified from 14 samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ITS4, ITS5 and ApMAT genes and phenotypic characters (colony morphology, microscopic features) the isolate (No. LC05) isolated from the sample collected from the village Assam Linzey, East Sikkim showed 100% homology with Colletotrichum fructicola from NCBI database. The pathogenicity of C. fructicola was also confirmed during the study. The fungal culture has been deposited at the NFCCI-ARI, Pune with an accession number NFCCI 4542 and the sequences have been deposited in NCBI GenBank with accession number (ITS) MN710587, (ApMAT) MW348934 respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of C. fructicola causing blight disease of large cardamom. Also the finding is very important to improve the disease control strategies of this high valued cash crop.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0258065
F. M. Y. Nur-Nazratul ◽  
M. R. M. Rakib ◽  
M. Z. Zailan ◽  
H. Yaakub

The changes in lignocellulosic biomass composition and in vitro rumen digestibility of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after pre-treatment with the fungus Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pre-treatment for 2–12 weeks has gradually degraded the OPEFB in a time-dependent manner; whereby lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were respectively degraded by 41.0, 20.5, and 26.7% at the end of the incubation period. The findings were corroborated using the physical examination of the OPEFB by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the OPEFB pre-treated for 12 weeks has shown the highest in vitro digestibility of dry (77.20%) and organic (69.78%) matter, where they were enhanced by 104.07 and 96.29%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. The enhancement in the in vitro ruminal digestibility was negatively correlated with the lignin content in the OPEFB. Therefore, biologically delignified OPEFB with G. lucidum fungal culture pre-treatment have the potential to be utilized as one of the ingredients for the development of a novel ruminant forage.

2021 ◽  
pp. 77-81
Hoon Choi ◽  
Dong Hyun Shim ◽  
Min Sung Kim ◽  
Bong Seok Shin ◽  
Chan Ho Na

Cutaneous cryptococcosis is classified either as localized cutaneous cryptococcosis, in which the lesions are confined to one area of the skin, or as disseminated cryptococcosis, in which cutaneous manifestations are more widespread. We report a case of fatal disseminated cryptococcosis with characteristic cutaneous manifestations. An 84-year-old woman with diabetes presented with crusted plaques and ulcers that were painful, diffuse, and erythematous to crusted and on only the left side of her face, neck, and upper chest. She was referred to our hospital from a local clinic, where herpes zoster had been suspected. She had no specific systemic symptoms. Histological examination of the skin lesion revealed granulomatous reactions and purple to reddish encapsulated spores. Cryptococcus neoformans was identified in fungal culture, and hospitalization was recommended. Oral fluconazole was prescribed, and she was admitted to another hospital. After 2 weeks, the patient's condition deteriorated, and she was transferred to our hospital. C. neoformans antigen was detected in the blood and urine during the evaluation for systemic involvement. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B and fluconazole; however, she died 10 days after admission. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis can appear in various forms and mimic molluscum contagiosum, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cellulitis. In this case, the skin lesions occurred on only the left side of the face, neck, and chest, as in herpes zoster. Cutaneous cryptococcosis can occur before the onset of symptoms of systemic involvement; therefore, diagnosis is important. Systemic evaluation may reveal early markers of disseminated cryptococcosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 72-76
Nam Gyoung Ha ◽  
Kyung Duck Park ◽  
Yong Jun Bang ◽  
Jae Bok Jun ◽  
Jong Soo Choi ◽  

Purpureocillium lilacinum is a saprophytic fungus with a ubiquitous environmental distribution, and it can be detected in soil samples and decaying materials worldwide. It has been reported as an emerging pathogen in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, showing various cutaneous presentations. Herein, we report a case of a patient with a localized cutaneous P. lilacinum infection, which resembles the skin lesions of psoriasis. A 72-year-old female was presented with a peripherally spreading, well-demarcated, asymptomatic, scaly, erythematous patch on her forehead for several months. Histopathological examination showed pinkish septated fungal elements and mixed inflammatory and granulomatous infiltrates in the dermis. Furthermore, a fungal culture on potato dextrose agar showed gray, velvety colonies with light yellow background after being subcultured. Phialides with chains of oval conidia were observed on lactophenol cotton blue staining. The ITS region of rRNA gene sequence obtained from the colony was identical to that of Purpureocillium lilacinum. The lesion was resolved with oral itraconazole (200 mg/day) after four months of treatment.

Ummu Afeera Binti Zainulabid ◽  
Muhammad Naimmuddin Bin Abdul Azih ◽  
Sasi Kumar A/L Maniyam ◽  
Azliana Binti Abd Fuaa ◽  
Mohd Radhwan Bin Abidin ◽  

Pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis is a rare infection in the lung caused by black fungi containing a cytoplasmic melanin-like pigment. A 42-year-old man with underlying retroviral disease on HAART was investigated for having constitutional symptoms. Despite undetectable viral load and a high CD4 count, he was found to have unexplained significant loss of weight and appetite over a period of 6 months. Clinical examination revealed a cachexic man with multiple inguinal lymphadenopathies. Excisional biopsy of the inguinal lymph node revealed reactive follicular hyperplasia. CT Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis was arranged to look for occult malignancy or infection and he was found to have multiple non-enhancing subcentimeter lung nodules mainly at the lateral segment of the right middle lobe of his lung. The largest nodule measured about 0.8 x 1.5 x 0.5 (AP x W x CC), with some nodules having an irregular margin with no extension into the adjacent bronchi. Bronchoscopy was done and demonstrated a black patch at the right intermedius, lateral segment of the middle lobe which did not disappear upon bronchial flush or wash. Histopathological examination found focal areas of blackish pigment and the bronchial alveolar lavage sent for fungal culture grew Cladosporium species. The patient was treated with oral Itraconazole with marked clinical improvement. This case highlights an unusual black fungi infection in the lung that stands out not only for its rarity and it's responsiveness to treatment, but also the susceptibility of an RVD positive patient to this infection despite having suppressed viral load and normal CD4 count.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S17

2021 ◽  
Xudong Ouyang ◽  
Jelmer Hoeksma ◽  
Tjalling K. Siersma ◽  
Leendert W. Hamoen ◽  
Jeroen den Hertog

AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health. Basic knowledge of antimicrobial mechanism of action (MoA) is imperative for patient care and for identification of novel antimicrobials. However, the process of antimicrobial MoA identification is relatively laborious. Here, we developed a simple, quantitative time-lapse fluorescence imaging method, Dynamic Bacterial Morphology Imaging (DBMI), to facilitate this process. It uses a membrane dye and a nucleoid dye to track the morphological changes of single Bacillus subtilis cells in response to antimicrobials for up to 60 min. DBMI of bacterial cells facilitated assignment of the MoAs of 14 distinct, known antimicrobial compounds to the five main classes. Using this method, we found that the poorly studied antimicrobial, harzianic acid, a secondary metabolite that we purified from the fungal culture of Oidiodendron flavum, targets the cell envelope. We conclude that DBMI is a simple method, which facilitates rapid classification of the MoA of antimicrobials in functionally distinct classes.

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