dry period
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Ruminants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 90-100
Alicia T. Corlevic ◽  
David S. Beggs

This review provides insight on potential host-specific factors that increase individual susceptibility to infection and transmission of bovine digital dermatitis. Digital dermatitis is increasing in prevalence within herds worldwide and yields economic losses for producers and welfare issues for animals. A total of 34 relevant studies were reviewed based on the inclusion criteria. A decrease in susceptibility to disease was found in animals with specific genomic and hoof characteristics, thus citing the importance of sire selection when designing a breeding program. Animals with superior health status that lacked co-morbidities and mounted immune responses to infection were less likely to develop disease. Primiparous cattle and those in peak production were more likely to develop lesions, as were over-or-under-conditioned Holstein–Friesian breeds. Cattle with superior hoof conformation and gait were poor hosts for bacteria and therefore less likely to develop and spread infection. The lowest risk of transmission of digital dermatitis occurred during the dry period and post peak lactation and cattle with advanced lesions contributed to the persistence of the disease within a herd. It is hoped that this review will help producers design breeding and management programs for their herds, and help veterinarians advise clients on the subject.

2022 ◽  
Bruno César dos Santos ◽  
Rafael Grecco Sanches ◽  
Talyson de Melo Bolleli ◽  
Paulo Henrique de Souza ◽  
Vandoir Bourscheidt

Abstract With the advance of remote sensing technologies, meteorological satellites have become an alternative in the process of monitoring and measuring meteorological variables, both spatially and temporally. The present study brings some additional elements to the validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates by evaluating the CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Station) monthly product for the central region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 1981-2019. Initially, the general relationship between satellite estimates and surface rainfall data is assessed using the linear adjustment and error analysis in both temporal and spatial perspectives, followed by a trend analysis using Laplace test. The monthly map analysis showed a better performance of CHIRPS during the dry period (April to August) than for the wet period (October to March). Finally, monthly trends showed, in general, the same pattern of variability in rainfall over 38 years and a prevalence toward the reduction of rainfall. In summary, CHIRPS product seems a reasonable alternative for regions that lack historical rainfall information.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12676
Ramon E. Jaimez ◽  
Luigy Barragan ◽  
Miguel Fernández-Niño ◽  
Ludger A. Wessjohann ◽  
George Cedeño-Garcia ◽  

Many decades of improvement in cacao have aided to obtain cultivars with characteristics of tolerance to diseases, adaptability to different edaphoclimatic conditions, and higher yields. In Ecuador, as a result of several breeding programs, the clone CCN 51 was obtained, which gradually expanded through the cacao-production regions of Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Peru. Recognized for its high yield and adaptability to different regions and environments, it has become one of the most popular clones for breeding programs and cultivation around the world. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the origin, genetics, morphological, volatile compounds, and organoleptic characteristics of this clone. Physiological evidence, production dynamics, and floral biology are also included to explain the high yield of CCN 51. Thus, characteristics such as osmotic adjustment, long pollen longevity, and fruit formation are further discussed and associated with high production at the end of the dry period. Finally, the impact of this popular clone on the current and future cacao industry will be discussed highlighting the major challenges for flavor enhancement and its relevance as a platform for the identification of novel genetic markers for cultivar improvement in breeding programs.

Liubov Ishchuk

Aim. In order to identify promising cultivars of Dahlia cultorum for use in landscaping in Kyiv region, the analysis of the system of qualitative and quantitative indicators of cultivars of dahlias, the peculiarities of their growth and development in the absence of irrigation is conducted. Methods. To analyze the diversity of Dahlia cultorum cultivars at the biostationary of Bila Tserkva NAU, the classification developed by the American Society of Dahlia (ADS classification) was used. The cultivar assortment of dahlias was studied according to the descriptions of the catalog of the company “SontseSad”, which transferred 108 cultivars of Dahlia cultorum to Bila Tserkva NAU biostationary in 2014. Phenological rhythms of growth and development of dahlias were studied according to the methods of B. K. Shybniev, H. D. Yurkevych, and D. S. Holod. The increment of dahlias was measured during the period of active growth, the size of the flower — during the period of its full opening with the help of a measuring ruler on 5 specimens of each cultivar every decade. Results. Based on the analysis of the varietal composition of Dahlia cultorum collection of dahlia cultivars of Bila Tserkva NAU biostationary, it was found that the largest number of 36% belongs to the cultivar group of decorative dahlias, 12% — to cactus, 7% — to spherical and 1% to pompoms and anemones. The mixed cultivar of dahlias is 43.4%, among them the most numerous group of dahlias with dissected leaves “Deer antlers” — 48%, “Karma” — 19%, pot — 12%, French collection — 21%. According to the color spectrum, the collection is dominated by dahlias of red color — 29%, pink — 19%, yellow and orange — 16% each, violet — 12%,  white color — 6%. Two-color cultivars amount to only 2%. Observations show that in May–June, due to the long and dry period and the lack of artificial irrigation, all cultivars of dahlias at Bila Tserkva NAU biostationary were marked by very slow growth. As of July 15, the height of dahlia bushes averaged 30–50 cm, which was significantly less than the size presented in the catalog of the magazine “SontseSad”. Conclusions. The collection of dahlias at Bila Tserkva NAU biostationary includes 108 cultivars belonging to seven main cultivar groups, including 11 cultivars from the new French collection. Early in the first decade of July, the cultivars ‘Islande’, ‘Maki’, ‘Sir Alf Ramsay’, ‘Mingus Alex’, ‘Glorie van Heemstede’ begin to bloom. Latest of all, in August, cultivars ‘Babylon Rose’, ‘Amanda’, ‘Aitara Bronwyn’, ’Karma Gold’, ‘Gallery Rembrandt’, ‘Lilac Time’, and ‘Star Spectacle’ began flowering. It is established that the period from the appearance of the bud to the opening of the flower in dahlia cultivars lasts 25-30 days. The first buds appeared in early July, but their peduncles were very short and such flowers were not suitable for cutting. In fact, the blooming central flower itself was 5-10 cm lower than the second-order buds around it, and therefore had a limited view from the inflorescence, which led to a loss of decorativeness in the cultivars ‘Romance’, ‘Candlelight’, and “Karma Bon Bini”. The duration of flowering of one dahlia flower in different cultivars ranged from 5 to 17 days. The longest period of blooming of one flower is 14-17 days in ‘Autumn Fairy’, ‘Nagano’, ‘Idylle’, ‘Babylon Brons’, ‘Duet’ cultivars. The shortest blooming period of one flower is 5-7 days for ‘Ellen Huston’, ‘Champs Elysees’, ‘ThykiYori No Shisha’, ‘Aspen’ cultivars. Due to the high air temperature and the long rainless period, the peak of flowering of dahlias in the conditions of  Bila Tserkva NAU biostationary was at the beginning of September.

I. I. Palamarchuk ◽  

In the results conducted between studies, the studied regulators affect the biometrics and yield of table carrot plants. The greatest influence on the interphase period "root formation - technical maturity" was performed by the regulator Phytocid-r, which helped reduce the growth of the interphase period Shantane KL by 3 days, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 by 4 days. With the use of the growth regulator Phytocid-r of the vegetation period of the population in the variety Shantane KL – 117 days, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 118 days, respectively 6 and 7 days shorter with control. The highest weight of root crops during the growing season was observed using the growth regulator Phytocid-p, in the variety Shantane KL the increase relative to control was 15.5 – 23.7 g, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 18.5 and 25.5 g. root crops were also characterized by variants using growth regulators Ivin and Emistym C, where the increase relative to the control at the end of the growing season was: in the variety Shantane KL – 4.1-8.3 g, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 4.9 and 6.0 g respectively. The growing season of table carrots was characterized by slightly higher temperatures and low rainfall, with a long dry period, which negatively affected the formation of roots of table carrots. However, the highest yield was obtained from the option using the growth regulator Phytocid-p, which provided an increase in yield at the level: in the variety Shantane KL – 8.5 t / ha, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 13.3 t / ha. The highest percentage of marketable yield was obtained using the growth regulator Phytocid-p in both varieties and hybrids – 94.8 and 95.2 %, which is more than the control by 11.2 and 11.0 %. The largest mass of root crop was formed by plants using the growth regulator Phytocid-r: in the variety Shantane KL – 112 g, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 118 g, which is 23.8 and 25.6 g more than the control. The diameter of the root was in the range of 5.8-7.0 cm and varied slightly from the growth regulator. The hybrid Brilliance F1 was characterized by a longer root length. However, taking into account the applied growth regulator, it was found that the highest figure was for the use of Phytocid-r: in the variety Shantane KL – 17.6 cm, in the hybrid Brilliance F1 – 18.3 cm, which is more than the option without treatment 1.2 and 1.0 cm.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3587
Johanna Ahmann ◽  
Julia Steinhoff-Wagner ◽  
Wolfgang Büscher

The immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum should be measured to ensure feeding with sufficient immunoglobulins (≥50 mg immunoglobulin G mL−1). Adequate feeding prevents diseases, promotes development, and has a positive influence on the adult animal. Indirect and direct measurement methods are available for this purpose. Direct measurement methods cannot be easily used in practice; therefore, farmers use indirect methods such as a colostrometer and a refractometer. Many factors influence the immunoglobulin concentration of colostrum; some of them have already been intensively researched. In particular, lactation and temporal aspects play an essential role. Newer aspects such as dry period, seasonal influences, and genetics are gaining importance, but their impact on immunoglobulin content has not been sufficiently investigated. Developments are still needed, especially in data management. This review analyzes the outcome of different studies on the indirect and direct measurement methods and discusses different factors influencing the immunoglobulin concentration of bovine colostrum.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 501-520
Gerson Marcel Peñuela Díaz ◽  
Ludy Archila-Durán ◽  
Jorge Parra ◽  
Juan E. Carvajal‑Cogollo

The Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird Saucerottia castaneiventris is an endemic hummingbird of Colombia, currently categorized as Near Threatened (NT) globally and as Vulnerable (VU) in Colombia. We characterize the territorial defense and foraging behaviors of S. castaneiventris hummingbird during different seasons of the year, and we determined the size of the S. castaneiventris territory and its relationship with floral abundance at different times of the year. We made four field trips between 2008 and 2009 and registered 19 individuals from S. castaneiventris. Of these, 10 were in the rainy periods, distributed in five territories (one male and one female for each). Eight were in the dry period (July), distributed in four territories. And one individual was in the dry period of February, which did not settle in any of the identified territories. Territorial defense occupied a large part of species’ time. The nectar drinking, and insect hunting were the most frequent activities. The most common floral resources were Opuntia dillenii, Tillandsia sp. and Aloe vera. The hummingbirds Chlorostilbon gibsoni and Doryfera ludoviciae shared habitats with S. castaneiventris and there were fluctuations in encounter rates between the seasons (C. gibsoni ER: 20–7.5 and D. ludoviciae and ER: 0.0–2.5). Territories ranged between 1800 and 3800 m2 for the dry season and between 1500 and 6500 m2 for the rainy season. Our results provided primary information on the ecology of S. castaneiventris and form the basis for the formulation of conservation strategies for the species and for its habitats..

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 842
Sudipa Maity ◽  
Ivana Rubić ◽  
Josipa Kuleš ◽  
Anita Horvatić ◽  
Dražen Đuričić ◽  

Dairy cows can suffer from a negative energy balance (NEB) during their transition from the dry period to early lactation, which can increase the risk of postpartum diseases such as clinical ketosis, mastitis, and fatty liver. Zeolite clinoptilolite (CPL), due to its ion-exchange property, has often been used to treat NEB in animals. However, limited information is available on the dynamics of global metabolomics and proteomic profiles in serum that could provide a better understanding of the associated altered biological pathways in response to CPL. Thus, in the present study, a total 64 serum samples were collected from 8 control and 8 CPL-treated cows at different time points in the prepartum and postpartum stages. Labelled proteomics and untargeted metabolomics resulted in identification of 64 and 21 differentially expressed proteins and metabolites, respectively, which appear to play key roles in restoring energy balance (EB) after CPL supplementation. Joint pathway and interaction analysis revealed cross-talks among valproic acid, leucic acid, glycerol, fibronectin, and kinninogen-1, which could be responsible for restoring NEB. By using a global proteomics and metabolomics strategy, the present study concluded that CPL supplementation could lower NEB in just a few weeks, and explained the possible underlying pathways employed by CPL.

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