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2022 ◽  
Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira ◽  
Heitor Luiz Ornaghi ◽  
Daniel Magalhães de Oliveira ◽  
Barbara Pereira ◽  
Valdeir Arantes ◽  

Abstract Millions of tons of fruit wastes are generated globally every year from residual agriculture, which makes essential to find alternative uses to increase their aggregate value and reduce the impact of environmental damage. The present study aimed to explore pineapple peel as an alternative source of cellulose by evaluating its composition and physical properties, which are essential to provide a clue to its application function diverse. Cellulose was extracted by a sequence of chlorine-free treatments to delignify the fresh pineapple peels, followed by characterization using chemical composition, XRD, FTIR, SEM and TGA to determine its crystallinity, structural properties, morphology thermal characteristics, and thermal degradation kinetic study. The result revealed that the pineapple peel amorphous segments containing hemicelluloses and lignin were extensively removed with increasing chemical treatments, leading to increased purity, crystallinity index and thermal stability of the extracted materials. The maximum degradation, and crystallinity index of the 2B isolated from the PPF are 150 °C and 80.91% respectively. The cellulose content increased from 24.05% (pineapple peel) to 80.91% (bleached cellulose). These results indicated that pretreatment via bleaching has suitable potential applications in nanocrystal production and suggests possible uses in the development of cellulose nanocrystal and application for packaging films.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 814
Qigui Li ◽  
Shujun Nie ◽  
Gaoke Li ◽  
Jiyuan Du ◽  
Ruchang Ren ◽  

The cellulose of the plant cell wall indirectly affects the cell shape and straw stiffness of the plant. Here, the novel brittleness mutant brittle stalk-5 (bk-5) of the maize inbred line RP125 was characterized. We found that the mutant displayed brittleness of the stalk and even the whole plant, and that the brittleness phenotype existed during the whole growth period from germination to senescence. The compressive strength was reduced, the cell wall was thinner, and the cellulose content was decreased compared to that of the wild type. Genetic analysis and map-based cloning indicated that bk-5 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene and that it was located in a 90.2-Kb region on chromosome 3 that covers three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis revealed a single non-synonymous missense mutation, T-to-A, in the last exon of Zm00001d043477 (B73: version 4, named BK-5) that caused the 951th amino acid to go from leucine to histidine. BK-5 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (CesA), which is involved with cellulose synthesis. We found that BK-5 was constitutively expressed in all tissues of the germinating stage and silking stage, and highly expressed in the leaf, auricula, and root of the silking stage and the 2-cm root and bud of the germinating stage. We found that BK-5 mainly localized to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that the protein might move to the plasma membrane with the aid of Golgi in maize. According to RNA-seq data, bk-5 had more downregulated genes than upregulated genes, and many of the downregulated genes were enzymes and transcription factors related to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin biosynthesis of the secondary cell wall. The other differentially expressed genes were related to metabolic and cellular processes, and were significantly enriched in hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, and the plant–pathogen interaction pathway. Taken together, we propose that the mutation of gene BK-5 causes the brittle stalk phenotype and provides important insights into the regulatory mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall development in maize.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 95-120
Márcio Araújo de Souza ◽  
Isis Tavares Vilas-Boas ◽  
Jôse Maria Leite-da-Silva ◽  
Pérsia do Nascimento Abrahão ◽  
Barbara E. Teixeira-Costa ◽  

The large-scale industrial use of polysaccharides to obtain energy is one of the most discussed subjects in science. However, modern concepts of biorefinery have promoted the diversification of the use of these polymers in several bioproducts incorporating concepts of sustainability and the circular economy. This work summarizes the major sources of agro-industrial residues, physico-chemical properties, and recent application trends of cellulose, chitin, hyaluronic acid, inulin, and pectin. These macromolecules were selected due to their industrial importance and valuable functional and biological applications that have aroused market interests, such as for the production of medicines, cosmetics, and sustainable packaging. Estimations of global industrial residue production based on major crop data from the United States Department of Agriculture were performed for cellulose content from maize, rice, and wheat, showing that these residues may contain up to 18%, 44%, and 35% of cellulose and 45%, 22%, and 22% of hemicellulose, respectively. The United States (~32%), China (~20%), and the European Union (~18%) are the main countries producing cellulose and hemicellulose-rich residues from maize, rice, and wheat crops, respectively. Pectin and inulin are commonly obtained from fruit (~30%) and vegetable (~28%) residues, while chitin and hyaluronic acid are primarily found in animal waste, e.g., seafood (~3%) and poultry (~4%).

Dung Tran Van ◽  
Thu Tat Anh ◽  
Long Vu Van ◽  
Da Chau Thi

This study investigated the influence of soil undergoing different crop rotations on the CH<sub>4</sub>, CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, and decomposition of rice straw. The studied soil undergoing crop rotation systems were rice-rice-rice (SR) and baby corn-rice-mungbean (SB). Two main microcosm set-ups: anaerobic (SR-AN, SB-AN) and aerobic (SR-AE, SB-AE) conditions. Litter bags containing rice stems were inserted into the soil and recollected at different time points for chemical analysing and the gas sampling was collected to measure the CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> emissions. The results indicated that the total carbon (TC) decreased around 30%, and the TC removal in anaerobic was significantly higher than in aerobic conditions. The residue cellulose content varied in a range from 68.2% to 78.6%, while the hemicellulose content varied from 57.4% to 69.3% at day 50 after incorporation. There were no significant differences in the total nitrogen removal, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents among the microcosm set-ups. CO<sub>2</sub> emission increased in all the microcosm set-ups with the treatments without rice straw (CTSR, CTSB) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. CH<sub>4</sub> release in the SR-AN treatments did not differ significantly compared with the SB-AN treatments. This study confirmed that the decomposition of rice straw residues is faster in the anaerobic paddy soil condition compared to the aerobic crop rotation condition.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Katieli Martins Todisco ◽  
Ezequiel José Pérez-Monterroza ◽  
Natália Soares Janzantti ◽  
Maria Aparecida Mauro

ABSTRACT: Edible coatings based on polysaccharides have been applied on pieces of fruits and vegetables before drying because of their potential to improve physical and nutritional characteristics of dehydrated plant foods. In the present study, physical and thermal properties of pectin-based films, with and without the incorporation of by-products obtained from the processing of red guava, were determined. These properties allow one to predict the likely behaviour of these films when used as edible coatings on guava pieces, during and after their dehydration. Thus the structural and morphological characteristics and the physical, thermal and sorption properties of the films and of the fruit pulp were determined, using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the static gravimetric method to determine the water-sorption curves. The addition of by-products provided crystallinity to the pectin film, attributed to their cellulose content, and hardly altered the water retention capacity of the pectin films. However, the pectin contributed to presenting a slightly higher sorption moisture at equilibrium, as compared to the guava pulp. The glass transition temperatures reported at extremely low moisture contents, both in the pulp and in the films with added by-products, indicated that at intermediate moisture contents, the fruit/film ensemble was in the rubbery state at room temperatures, providing softness to the dehydrated product. The images showed good integration of the edible films with the surface of the guava pieces.

Fabiola Sandoval-Salas ◽  
Carlos Méndez-Carreto ◽  
Christell Barrales-Fernández ◽  
Graciela Ortega-Avila

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials has several environmental and economic advantages. In this work, corn cob was used to produce ethanol by fermentation. The cob was grounded, hydrolyzed chemically, and then enzymatically. Later, hydrolysates were used as a carbon source to formulate culture media that were inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae; hollocellulose content was quantified by the ASTM D-1104 method; cellulose content by the TAPPTI 212 method; lignin content by the NREL / TP-510-42618 method; and ethanol was quantified by HPLC. In fermentation, bioethanol yields of up to 3.5 g / L were found, equivalent to YP/S value of 0.46, representing approximately 90% of the theoretical yield.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 194

Rice straw is a waste from rice plants that contains 37.71% cellulose, 21.99% hemicellulose, and 16.62% lignin. High cellulose content in rice straw can be used as raw material for the manufacture of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC). CMC is a cellulose derivative widely used in food, pharmaceutical, detergent, textile and cosmetic products industries as a thickener, stabilizer of emulsions, or suspensions and bonding. This study aims to process rice straw waste into CMC with variations in sodium monochloroacetate of 5,6,7,8 and 9 grams. The method used in this research is by synthesis using 15% NaOH solvent, with a reaction time of 3.5 hours and 5 grams of rice straw. The results showed that the best CMC was obtained at a concentration of 9 grams of sodium monochloroacete with a yield characterization of 94%, pH 6, water content of 13.39%, degree of substitution (Ds) of 0.80, and viscosity of 1.265 cP.

2021 ◽  
Tamrate Tesfaye(D.r)

Abstract Natural fibers are of the good substitute sources for swapping synthetic fibers and reinforcing polymer matrices because of their contributions in maintaining of ecology, low energy requirement for processing and sustainability. The aim of this study is to characterize new fiber from Cyperus Dichrostachus A.Rich (CDA) plant. The CDA plant is a perennial non woody grass found in Ethiopian high lands and river basins. The fiber from this plant has good chemical composition of Cellulose (60.27%), hemicellulose (22.72%), lignin (16.59%) contents. It is light fiber having a density of 1010kg/m3 and good tenacity behaviour of 105.76cN/Tex with low elongation of 4.88%. The thermal stability of Cyperus Dicrostachys A,Rich fiber (CDAF) was studied using TGA and DTG analysis and revealed that the cellulose degraded at a temperature of 377.1°C. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that CDAF is rich in cellulose content. Furthermore, the properties of CDAF ensured that it can play a vital role as new reinforcement material and best alternative in bio composite industries. This will give competitive advantages when evaluated with other natural fibers reveals that there are significant potential benefits in implementation of “cleaner production” in textile material production industries. Specifically, replacement of synthetic fiber source with renewable biomass will reduce the environmental impact of these fibers. The future study will entail on investigating the possible valorization route especially in paper board, composite reinforcement and bio composite applications.

Holzforschung ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Nacera Benouadah ◽  
Andrey Pranovich ◽  
Jalel Labidi ◽  
Stefan Willför

Abstract Bark wastes today are viewed as a high-value resource for biorefinery due to their chemical richness and diversity. This work presents a comprehensive chemical characterization of the inner bark and the outer bark of Eucalyptus camaldulensis cultivated in Algeria. The extractives were first isolated with an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE) and then analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The content of pre-extracted bark in cellulosic polysaccharide and free sugar monomers was determined by Gas Chromatography (GC). The hemicellulose composition and amount was determined after the acid methanolysis and GC. The amount of lignin was determined gravimetrically by the Klason lignin method and the acid soluble lignin was determined by the UV method. Formic and acetic acids in the bark were determined by HPLC after alkaline hydrolysis. It was found that the extractives content were similar in the outer bark (0.85%) and the inner bark (0.88%). The cellulose content was higher in the outer bark (33.4%) than in the inner bark (28.7%). Lignin and the total hemicellulose contents were more abundant in the outer bark (31.7, 26.2%) than in the inner bark (28.6, 19.3%) whereas, sugar monomers were more abundant in the inner bark (4.4%) than in the outer bark (3.8%). The variation in acetic and formic acids and ash contents between the outer bark (1.5, 0.006 and 2.5%) and the inner bark (1.3, 0.005 and 2.4%) was small. The obtained results showed that the bark can be considered a suitable feedstock for lignocellulosic biorefinery and also for the extraction of bioactive compounds that can be used in different sectors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 63
Sebastianus Dani Ganesha ◽  
Salsabila Maris Syahputri ◽  
Samuel Yedija Liem ◽  
Joko Prasetyo ◽  
Harum Azizah Darojati

Post-harvest activities of agricultural products often generate wastes. One of the agricultural wastes that increase every year is corn cobs, which have a high cellulose content and can potentially be used as raw materials for making natural fibers. Therefore, this study aims to examine several potential commercial products from corn cobs. The method used is a literature study by tracing the sources of previous writings. Furthermore, how to process corn cobs waste for the manufacture of natural fibers and commercial products will be discussed. From the previously traced sources in the utilization of corn cobs waste, 4 products were obtained. The results are nano hydrogels based on gamma radiation, activated carbon with a carbonation process, bioethanol using the SSF process, and the use of corn cob cellulose as good-quality brake lining.

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