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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (14) ◽  
pp. e522101422261
Author(s):  
Keth Ribeiro Garcia ◽  
Valeria Weiss-Angeli ◽  
Letícia Scherer Koester ◽  
Venina dos Santos ◽  
Rosmary Nichele Brandalise

Lignocellulosic nanofibers derived from tobacco stalk can have countless applications in polymers composites, textile, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Thus, it is important to evaluate biomass characteristics such as the presence of nicotine. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by mechanical fibrillation while cellulose content (0.5 and 2.0%) and drying methods were varied. Nanofibers were characterized by thin layer chromatography, 1H NMR, morphological analysis, α-cellulose content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Results demonstrate the absence of nicotine in tobacco stalk. The grinding mill process was efficient to produce by freeze-drying, nanofibers with fiber’s mean diameter of ~30 nm. Solid concentrations can influence the diameter of obtained fibers. Thermal stability increased and crystallinity decreased when alkali treatment was applied. The characterization techniques applied enable the evaluation of tobacco stalk and expanded its application to pharmaceutics.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6754
Author(s):  
Maxwel Monção ◽  
Kateřina Hrůzová ◽  
Ulrika Rova ◽  
Leonidas Matsakas ◽  
Paul Christakopoulos

The use of residual biomass for bioconversions makes it possible to decrease the output of fossil-based chemicals and pursue a greener economy. While the use of lignocellulosic material as sustainable feedstock has been tried at pilot scale, industrial production is not yet economically feasible, requiring further technology and feedstock optimization. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of replacing woodchips with residual sawdust in biorefinery applications. Woodchips can be used in value-added processes such as paper pulp production, whereas sawdust is currently used mainly for combustion. The main advantages of sawdust are its large supply and a particle size sufficiently small for the pretreatment process. Whereas, the main challenge is the higher complexity of the lignocellulosic biomass, as it can contain small amounts of bark and cambium. Here, we studied the fractionation of birch sawdust by organosolv pretreatment at two different temperatures and for two different durations. We evaluated the efficiency of fractionation into the three main fractions: lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. The cellulose content in pretreated biomass was as high as 69.2%, which was nearly double the amount in untreated biomass. The obtained lignin was of high purity, with a maximum 4.5% of contaminating sugars. Subsequent evaluation of the susceptibility of pretreated solids to enzymatic saccharification revealed glucose yields ranging from 75% to 90% after 48 h but reaching 100.0% under the best conditions. In summary, birch sawdust can be successfully utilized as a feedstock for organosolv fractionation and replace woodchips to simplify and lower the costs of biorefinery processes.


Author(s):  
Suryati Suryati ◽  
Meriatna Meriatna ◽  
Sulhatun Sulhatun ◽  
Dwi Ayu Lestari

Rice straw is one of material containing cellulose to produce Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC). CMC is a non toxic polysaccharide that produces from cellulose that widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, textile, detergent, and cosmetic products industries. There are two stages usually use to produce CMC which are mercerization and esterification processes. Rice straw waste is one of the materials to produce CMC, it has a cellulose content of 37.7%, hemi-cellulose 21.99%, and lignin 16.62 %.  BPS Aceh shown that the total rice harvested area was 310.01 hectares, with a total production of 1.71 million tons, and rice produced at 982.57 thousand ton. This study aims to reduce waste and environmental pollution caused by rice straw and collects information of rice straw as a basic material to produce of carboxymethyl cellulose and to increase the economic value of rice straw.  The effects of various wieght parameters sodium monochloroacetate on chemical properties of CMC that produce from rice straw were investigated in this research. Rice straw was collected from a rice field in Nisam, North Aceh. The research conducted by synthesizing 5 grams rice straw for 5.5 hours using NaOH and Sodium Monochloroacetate solutions. With variations weight of sodium monochloroacetate are 5,6,7,8 and 9 grams. The characterization of CMC was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), CMC yield, DS, Viscosity, water content, pH. The result shows that addition of sodium monochloroacetate was significant factors influence the chemical properties on CMC. The CMC that produced in this study achieved to National Indonesia Standard (SNI).


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2221
Author(s):  
Adila Fazliyana Aili Hamzah ◽  
Muhammad Hazwan Hamzah ◽  
Hasfalina Che Man ◽  
Nur Syakina Jamali ◽  
Shamsul Izhar Siajam ◽  
...  

Pineapple waste accounts for a significant part of waste accumulated in landfill which will further contribute to the release of greenhouse gases. With the rising pineapple demands worldwide, the abundance of pineapple waste and its disposal techniques are a major concern. Exploiting the pineapple waste into valuable products could be the most sustainable way of managing these residues due to their useful properties and compositions. In this review, we concentrated on producing useful products from on-farm pineapple waste and processing waste. Bioenergy is the most suitable option for green energy to encounter the increasing demand for renewable energy and promotes sustainable development for agricultural waste. The presence of protease enzyme in pineapple waste makes it a suitable raw material for bromelain production. The high cellulose content present in pineapple waste has a potential for the production of cellulose nanocrystals, biodegradable packaging and bio-adsorbent, and can potentially be applied in the polymer, food and textile industries. Other than that, it is also a suitable substrate for the production of wine, vinegar and organic acid due to its high sugar content, especially from the peel wastes. The potentials of bioenergy production through biofuels (bioethanol, biobutanol and biodiesel) and biogas (biomethane and biohydrogen) were also assessed. The commercial use of pineapples is also highlighted. Despite the opportunities, future perspectives and challenges concerning pineapple waste utilisation to value-added goods were also addressed. Pineapple waste conversions have shown to reduce waste generation, and the products derived from the conversion would support the waste-to-wealth concept.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiong Zhang ◽  
Lihu Wang ◽  
Zhongtang Wang ◽  
Rentang Zhang ◽  
Ping Liu ◽  
...  

AbstractFruit lignification is due to lignin deposition in the cell wall during cell development. However, there are few studies on the regulation of cell wall lignification and lignin biosynthesis during fruit pigmentation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of cell wall lignification and lignin biosynthesis during pigmentation of winter jujube. The cellulose content decreased, while the lignin content increased in the winter jujube pericarp during pigmentation. Safranin O-fast green staining showed that the cellulose content was higher in the cell wall of winter jujube prior to pigmentation, whereas the lignin in the cell wall increased after pigmentation. The thickness of the epidermal cells decreased with pericarp pigmentation. A combined metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis showed that guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) lignin was the main lignin type in the pericarp of winter jujube, and F5H (LOC107424406) and CCR (LOC107420974) were preliminarily identified as the key genes modulating lignin biosynthesis in winter jujube. Seventeen MYB and six NAC transcription factors (TFs) with potential regulation of lignin biosynthesis were screened out based on phylogenetic analysis. Three MYB and two NAC TFs were selected as candidate genes and further studied in detail. Arabidopsis ectopic expression and winter jujube pericarp injection of the candidate genes indicated that the MYB activator (LOC107425254) and the MYB repressor (LOC107415078) control lignin biosynthesis by regulating CCR and F5H, while the NAC (LOC107435239) TF promotes F5H expression and positively regulates lignin biosynthesis. These findings revealed the lignin biosynthetic pathway and associated genes during pigmentation of winter jujube pericarp and provide a basis for further research on lignin regulation.


Author(s):  
Masrullita Masrullita ◽  
Rizka Nurlaila ◽  
Zulmiardi Zulmiardi ◽  
Ferri Safriwardy ◽  
Auliani Auliani ◽  
...  

Rice straw is one of material containing cellulose to produce Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC). CMC is a non toxic polysaccharide that produces from cellulose that widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, textile, detergent, and cosmetic products industries. There are two stages usually use to produce CMC which are mercerization and esterification processes. Rice straw waste is one of the materials to produce CMC, it has a cellulose content of 37.7%, hemi-cellulose 21.99%, and lignin 16.62 %.  BPS Aceh shown that the total rice harvested area was 310.01 hectares, with a total production of 1.71 million tons, and rice produced at 982.57 thousand ton. This study aims to reduce waste and environmental pollution caused by rice straw and collects information of rice straw as a basic material to produce of carboxymethyl cellulose and to increase the economic value of rice straw.  The effects of various wieght parameters sodium monochloroacetate on chemical properties of CMC that produce from rice straw were investigated in this research. Rice straw was collected from a rice field in Nisam, North Aceh. The research conducted by synthesizing 5 grams rice straw for 5.5 hours using NaOH and Sodium Monochloroacetate solutions. With variations weight of sodium monochloroacetate are 5,6,7,8 and 9 grams. The characterization of CMC was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), CMC yield, DS, Viscosity, water content, pH. The result shows that addition of sodium monochloroacetate was significant factors influence the chemical properties on CMC. The CMC that produced in this study achieved to National Indonesia Standard (SNI).


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (10) ◽  
pp. 389-393
Author(s):  
Sari Rizky Amelia ◽  
Muhammad Yerizam ◽  
Erwana Dewi

Tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) merupakan limbah padatan yang dihasilkan dari proses pembuatan minyak kelapa sawit yang selulosa (45,95%), kadar abu (1,23%), hemiselulosa (22,84%), kadar air (3,74%) dan lignin (16,49%). Pelepah pisang mempunyai kandungan selulosa yang tinggi akan tetapi belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal yang memiliki kandungan densitas ( 1,35 gr/cm3), selulosa (63 -64 %), hemiselulosa (20 %), lignin (5%), kekuatan Tarik rata-rata (600 Mpa), modulus tarik rata-rata (17,85 Gpa), pertambahan panjang (3,36 %), diameter serat (5,8 µm), serta panjang serat (30,9240 cm). Namun bahan-bahan ini mempunyai karakteristik dan sifat fisika kimia yang berbeda-beda. Karakteristik menjadikan perlunya analisa agar menghasilkan pulp yang diinginkan berada pada kondisi optimal. Beberapa parameter yang diukur di antaranya, konsentrasi larutan NaOH dengan variasi 7% dan 9%, dengan variasi bahan baku 40-60% serta waktu pemasakan dengan variasi waktu 75, 90, 105, 120 dan 135 menit. Sehingga pada penelitian ini didapatkan kondisi optimumnya yakni pada rasio 40:60, dengan konsentrasi 9% dan waktu pemasakan selama 120 menit didapatkan nilai kadar lignin 11,21% dan kadar selulosa 68,94%. Oil palm empty fruit bunches or TKKS are solid wastes produced from the process of making palm oil which are cellulose (45.95%), ash content (1.23%), hemicellulose (22.84%), water content (3.74 %) and lignin (16.49%). Banana midrib has a high cellulose content but has not been used optimally which contains density (1.35 g/cm3), cellulose (63 -64 %), hemicellulose (20 %), lignin (5%), average tensile strength. average (600 Mpa), average tensile modulus (17.85 Gpa), increase in length (3.36%), fiber diameter (5.8 m), and fiber length (30,9240 cm). However, these materials have different physicochemical characteristics and properties. The characteristics make the need for analysis in order to produce the desired pulp in optimal conditions. Several parameters were measured including the concentration of NaOH solution with variations of 7% and 9%, with variations of raw materials 40-60% and cooking time with variations of 75, 90, 105, 120 and 135 minutes. So that in this study the optimum conditions were obtained, namely at a ratio of 40:60, with a concentration of 9% and cooking time for 120 minutes, the lignin content was 11.21% and the cellulose content was 68.94%.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 89
Author(s):  
Nur Rokhati ◽  
Aji Prasetyaningrum ◽  
Nur ‘Aini Hamada ◽  
Adi Lamda Cahyo Utomo ◽  
Hery Budiarto Kurniawan ◽  
...  

Logam berat adalah istilah untuk logam-logam seperti Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, dan Zn yang sering berhubungan dengan polusi dan toksisitas. Adsorpsi merupakan metode yang paling sering digunakan untuk menghilangkan ion logam. Tongkol jagung berpotensi menjadi adsorben karena kadar selulosanya yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji performa tongkol jagung sebagai adsorben ion Cr(VI) dan Cd(II). Penelitian dimulai dengan perlakuan awal adsorben dan dilanjutkan dengan proses adsorbsi. Kadar logam berat dihitung dengan metode spektrofotometri. Nilai efisiensi penyerapan Cd(II) meningkat dengan adanya perlakuan awal menggunakan suhu tinggi. Jumlah logam yang terserap semakin banyak seiring dengan lamanya waktu adsorpsi dengan efisiensi penyerapan sebesar 94,76% untuk Cr(VI) dan 83,96% untuk Cd(II). Penambahan jumlah adsorben tongkol jagung juga meningkatkan efisiensi penyerapan logam kromium hingga 82,33% dan kadmium sebesar 83,98%. Sedangkan jumlah ion Cr(VI) yang terserap tidak linear dengan penambahan kecepatan pengadukan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tongkol jagung berpotensi digunakan sebagai adsorben ion logam berat dengan efisiensi di atas 80%.  Kata kunci: adsorpsi, kadmium, kromium, tongkol jagung AbstractHeavy metal is a term for metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, often associated with pollution and toxicity. Adsorption is the most commonly used method to remove metal ions. Corncob have the potential to be an adsorbent because of their high cellulose content. This study aimed to examine the performance of corncob as an adsorbent of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) ions. The study began with the pretreatment of the adsorbent and continued with the adsorption process. Heavy metal concentration was calculated by the spectrophotometric method. The value of the absorption efficiency of Cd(II) increased with the pretreatment using high temperature. The amount of metal adsorbed increased with the length of adsorption time with the absorption efficiency of 94.76% for Cr(VI) and 83.96% for Cd(II). The addition of corncob adsorbent also increased the efficiency of chromium metal absorption up to 82.33% and cadmium by 83.98%. Meanwhile, the amount of Cr(VI) ion adsorbed was not linear with increasing stirring speed. Based on the results, it can be concluded that corncob could be used as heavy metal ion adsorbents with an efficiency above 80%. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, chromium, corn cob


Author(s):  
Liliana Yanet López-Velázquez ◽  
Sergio Salgado-García ◽  
Samuel Cordova-Sánchez ◽  
Cintya Valerio-Cardenas ◽  
Gloria Ivette Bolio-Lopez ◽  
...  

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the cellulose content and characteristics of sugarcane straw from the cultivars MEX 69-290, MEX 68-P-23, CO-997, SP 70-1284 and CP 72-2086. Design/methodology/approach: A completely random experimental design with six replicates was conducted; the study factor was the sugarcane straw from the five evaluated cultivars. For cellulose extraction, the sodium hydroxide (soda) method was used on dried sugarcane straw of 2 mm. The crystallinity and crystal size were determined with x-ray diffraction (XRD); the fiber length had achieved a measurement with a DMRE optical microscope.   Results: Among the results, it can be noted that the cultivars MEX 69-290 and SP 70-1284, which presented less cellulose content (8.4 g and 8.5 g) and lower yields (42.1% and 42.6%), while the cultivar CO-997, presented higher cellulose content and yield which ranged from 9.8 g to 49.8%. The crystallinity of cellulose was higher in the sugarcane straw from the cultivars SP 70-1284 and MEX 68-P23. The crystal size of cellulose was 2.3 nm. The length of cellulose fibers was small (<945.7 µm). Study limitations/implications: The collection of samples in the field, as well as selected materials for digestion. Findings/conclusions: The sugarcane straw is a potential source of cellulose for the paper industry.  


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