secondary metabolites
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2022 ◽  
Vol 39 ◽  
pp. 83-99
Isabel Vicente ◽  
Riccardo Baroncelli ◽  
Rosa Hermosa ◽  
Enrique Monte ◽  
Giovanni Vannacci ◽  

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 220
Ana Mariel Torres-Contreras ◽  
Antoni Garcia-Baeza ◽  
Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon ◽  
Isaias Balderas-Renteria ◽  
Mónica A Ramírez-Cabrera ◽  

Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas.

Zahir Shah ◽  
Syed Lal Badshah ◽  
Arshad Iqbal ◽  
Zamarud Shah ◽  
Abdul-Hamid Emwas ◽  

Abstract Background Freshwater macroalgae possess a number of important secondary metabolites. They are an unexplored source of medicinal compounds. In this study, three freshwater macroalgae—Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata and Spirogyra crassa—were collected from the river Swat and the river Kabul in the Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To assess the role of freshwater macroalgae in agriculture, various experiments were performed on their extracts. Methanolic extract of the three macroalgae were first analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the presence of important medicinal secondary metabolites. The methanol based macroalgae extracts were tested for antibacterial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Results Initially, the algae were dried, crushed and treated with methanol for the extraction of secondary metabolites. The GC–MS results contained several important long chain fatty acids and other related long-chain hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes. Several benzene derivatives were also detected during the course of the investigation. Several of these compounds have established roles in the treatment of human ailments and can be supplied to farm animals. For example, phenylephrine is a decongestant, dilates pupils, increases blood pressure and helps in relieving hemorrhoids. Hexahydropseudoionone has uses in perfumes and other cosmetics. Several essential oils were also detected in the methanolic extract of the three macroalgae that can be utilized in various industrial products. Bioassays showed that these algal extracts—especially the Spirogyra sp. extract—contain moderate to maximum bioactivity. Conclusions Macroalgae possess important secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. These secondary metabolites can be used as biopesticides, plant growth enhancers, and remedies for various diseases in farm animals and for the control of weeds. They can be further explored for isolation and purification of useful biochemical compounds. Graphical Abstract

Shyam L. Kandel ◽  
Rubaiya Jesmin ◽  
Brian M. Mack ◽  
Rajtilak Majumdar ◽  
Matthew K. Gilbert ◽  

Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of oilseed crops such as maize, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produces carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins during seed colonization. Aflatoxin contamination not only reduces the value of the produce but also is a health hazard to humans and animals. Previously, we observed inhibition of A. flavus aflatoxin biosynthesis upon exposure to the marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes (Vg). In this study, we used RNA sequencing to examine the transcriptional profiles of A. flavus treated with both live and heat-inactivated dead Vg and control samples. Fungal biomass, total accumulated aflatoxins, and expression profiles of genes constituting secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were determined at 24, 30, and 40 h after treatment. Statistically significant reductions in total aflatoxins were detected in Vg-treated samples as compared to control samples at 40 h. But no statistical difference in fungal biomass was observed upon these treatments. The Vg treatments were most effective on aflatoxin biosynthesis as was reflected in significant downregulation of majority of the genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster including the aflatoxin pathway regulator gene, aflR. Along with aflatoxin genes, we also observed significant downregulation in some other secondary metabolite gene clusters including cyclopiazonic acid and aflavarin, suggesting that the treatment may inhibit other secondary metabolites as well. Finally, a weighted gene correlation network analysis identified an upregulation of ten genes that were most strongly associated with Vg-dependent aflatoxin inhibition and provide a novel start-point in understanding the mechanisms that result in this phenomenon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 838
Maulidia Rahmawati ◽  
Choirul Mahfud ◽  
Gianfranco Risuleo ◽  
Nurul Jadid

Plant tissue culture plays an important role in plant biotechnology due to its potential for massive production of improved crop varieties and high yield of important secondary metabolites. Several efforts have been made to ameliorate the effectiveness and production of plant tissue culture, using biotic and abiotic factors. Nowadays, the addition of nanoparticles as elicitors has, for instance, gained worldwide interest because of its success in microbial decontamination and enhancement of secondary metabolites. Nanoparticles are entities in the nanometric dimension range: they possess unique physicochemical properties. Among all nanoparticles, silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known for their antimicrobial and hormetic effects, which in appropriate doses, led to the improvement of plant biomass as well as secondary metabolite accumulation. This review is focused on the evaluation of the integration of nanotechnology with plant tissue culture. The highlight is especially conveyed on secondary metabolite enhancement, effects on plant growth and biomass accumulation as well as their possible mechanism of action. In addition, some perspectives of the use of nanomaterials as potential therapeutic agents are also discussed. Thus, the information provided will be a good tool for future research in plant improvement and the large-scale production of important secondary metabolites. Elicitation of silver-nanoparticles, as well as nanomaterials, function as therapeutic agents for animal well-being is expected to play a major role in the process. However, nanosized supramolecular aggregates have received an increased resonance also in other fields of application such as animal welfare. Therefore, the concluding section of this contribution is dedicated to the description and possible potential and usage of different nanoparticles that have been the object of work and expertise also in our laboratories.

2022 ◽  
Rybalko Evgeniy ◽  
Ostroukhova Elena ◽  
Baranova Natalia ◽  
Peskova Irina ◽  
Borisova Victoria

This research focused on examining the interrelationships between the natural conditions for growing grapes, as well as the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the harvest. These are important criteria for the scientifically grounded selection of a territory for planting a vineyard, selecting varieties and determining the use of the resulting products. The characteristics of six model vineyards of the Aligote cultivar, located in various natural zones and viticultural regions of the Crimea, were analyzed. The values of climatic indicators were calculated, including the growing degree days above 10∘C (∑Т ∘С10), growing degree days above 20∘C (∑Т ∘С20), Huglin index, Winkler index, average growing season temperature, average September temperature, ratio ∑Т ∘С20/∑Т ∘С10,total precipitation during the year, total precipitation during the growing season, total precipitation in September, and Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient. These were calculated usinggeoinformation and mathematical modeling for the locations of the analyzed vineyards. The content of the primary metabolites (total sugars, titrated acids and calculated indicators based on them) and secondary metabolites (phenolic components, oxidase activity) of grapes from the model vineyards were analyzed. The range of variation in the studied indicators within the analyzed territories was calculated, and the nature and magnitude of the relationships between the indicators were revealed. A cluster analysis of the analyzed vineyards was carried out and clusters were distinguished according to the degree of similarity in climatic parameters, as well as the content of the primary and secondary metabolites of the grapes. Keywords: grapes, agroecological factors, primary and secondary grape metabolites, ampeloecological zoning, terroir

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