general anesthesia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 110598
Jean-Noël Evain ◽  
Zoé Durand ◽  
Kelly Dilworth ◽  
Sarah Sintzel ◽  
Aurélien Courvoisier ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Ali Solhpour ◽  
Ardeshir Tajbakhsh ◽  
Saeid Safari ◽  
Maryam Movaffaghi ◽  
Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi ◽  

Abstract Background During general anesthesia especially when the nurse or anesthesiologist forgets to change manual to controlled mode after successful endotracheal intubation, capnography shows End-tidal Co2 above 20 mmHg after checking the place of the tracheal tube and will remain on the screen permanently. In this scenario, the patient receives a high concentration of oxygen, and Spo2 (oxygen saturation) does not drop for a long time which is too late to intervene. It has been all-time questionable which one of the cardiac dysrhythmias or Spo2 dropping occurs earlier. Results Medical records of seven deceased patients reviewed. All of them had electrocardiogram changes including premature ventricular contraction or bradycardia as a first warning sign. Oxygen saturation remains above 95% even with cardiac dysrhythmia. Conclusions Bradycardia and premature ventricular contraction were the first warning findings for severe hypercapnia during general anesthesia and occurred earlier than dropping oxygen saturation. Furthermore, the normal capnography waveform is more reliable than the End-tidal Co2 number for monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yan Wu ◽  
Zhenna Zhang ◽  
Yangfan Liu ◽  
Guangwen Shi ◽  
Xuehai Ding

Objective. To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine nursing on general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and electric resection to treat bladder cancer and its influence on tumor markers. Methods. A total of 160 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who underwent general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and resection were included in this study. The patients were divided into control group (n = 80) and study group (n = 80) according to the random number table method. The control group received hydroxycamptothecin bladder perfusion therapy, and the study group received traditional Chinese medicine nursing combined with hydroxycamptothecin bladder perfusion therapy. The clinical efficacy, three-year cumulative survival rate, and postoperative recurrence rate of the two groups of patients were detected. The levels of tumor markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VECF) and bladder tumor antigen (BTA) before and after treatment were also tested. The immune function, inflammatory factor levels, and quality of life of the two groups before and after treatment were evaluated. Results. The total effective rate of the study group (83.75%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (58.75%). After treatment, the serum VEGF and BTA levels, inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels of the two groups of patients decreased, and the decrease in the study group was more significant than that in the control group P < 0.05 . After treatment, the levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ in the two groups increased P < 0.05 , and the increase in the study group was more significant than that in the control group P < 0.05 . After treatment, the CD8+ levels of the two groups of patients decreased P < 0.05 , and the decrease in the study group was more significant than that in the control group P < 0.05 . After treatment, the quality-of-life scores in both groups increased P < 0.05 , and the increase in the study group was even more significant P < 0.05 . Conclusion. Traditional Chinese medicine nursing has significant clinical effects on the treatment of bladder cancer with general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and electric resection. It can more effectively prevent the risk of recurrence of bladder cancer after surgery, significantly improve the quality of life, improve immune system function, regulate the levels of VECF and BTA, effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, inhibit tumor progression, and reduce tumor viability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Samar Rafik Amin ◽  
Enas W. Mahdy

Abstract Background Hypotension is often occurring after induction of general anesthesia (IGA) and can cause organ hypoperfusion and ischemia which associated with adverse outcomes in patients having both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Elderly patients are particularly more vulnerable and at increased risk to the depressant effect of anesthetic drugs. So, recognition and prevention of such event are of clinical importance. This study recruited patients aged above 60 years, with ASA physical status classification I-II-III who were scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with the aim to assess the effectiveness of preoperative IVC ultrasonography in predicting hypotension which develops following IGA and its association with the volume status in elderly patients receiving general anesthesia, through measurements of the maximum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmax), minimum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmin), inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI), and basal and post-induction mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results Thirty-nine (44.3%) of the 88 patients developed hypotension after IGA, and it was significantly more in patients who did not receive preoperative fluid (p = 0.045). The cut-off for dIVCmax was found as 16.250 mm with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 16.250 mm were calculated as 61.2% and 76.9%, respectively. The cut-off for IVC-CI was found as 33.600% with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 33.600% were calculated as 68.7% and 87.2%, respectively. Conclusions IVC ultrasonography may be helpful in the prediction of preoperative hypovolemia in elderly patients in the form of high IVC-CI and low dIVCmax. The incidence of hypotension was lower in patients who received fluid infusion before IGA.

Biby Mary Kuriakose ◽  
Kavitha Krishnakumar

Background: General anesthesia is preferred during surgeries to reduce the pain stimuli in patients and to increase the precision of surgical procedure. Propofol is amongst the most widely used general anesthetic agent with limitation of induced pain during administration. Current study was conducted to compare the effect of intravenous pre-administration of various drugs in attenuating propofol induced pain.  Methods: A comparative observational study was conducted on patients of either sex and aged between 18-60 years. Patients were divided in three groups, who received intravenous lignocaine, dexamethasone and combination of lignocaine-dexamethasone respectively to attenuate propofol induced pain. Different variables like HR, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR SpO2 and any adverse events were monitored in all the patients.  Results: The 46.66% and 53.33% patients who received lignocaine and dexamethasone alone perceived propofol induced mild to moderate pain; while only 23.33% patients who received lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination perceived mild propofol induced pain. The propofol induced pain event was persistent in only 2 out of 30 patients after a time lapse of 30 seconds for the group receiving lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination. Whereas, the pain event was present even after time lapse of 30 seconds in 08 and 07 out of 30 patients of groups receiving lignocaine and dexamethasone alone.Conclusions: Pre-administration of lignocaine and dexamethasone in combination attenuated the propofol induced pain more significantly in comparison to single administration of mentioned drugs. No significant adverse events except perianal irritation were observed in some patients who received combination of lignocaine and dexamethasone intravenously.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Mao Miyanishi ◽  
Toru Yaguramaki ◽  
Yasuhiro Maehara ◽  
Osamu Nagata

Abstract Background Remimazolam is a novel, ultra-short-acting benzodiazepine used for general anesthesia. Because remimazolam is an emerging drug, the tolerance to remimazolam in benzodiazepine-taking patients has been unclear. Also, the efficacy of remimazolam in different races is not fully elucidated so far. Case presentation Here we experienced three cases in which high dose of remimazolam was needed for attempting to achieve appropriate anesthetic depth. Two of the three cases were of preoperatively benzodiazepine-taking patients. The other was a case of a Chinese patient. In all three cases, conversion to general anesthesia with propofol was necessitated. Conclusions When signs of inadequate sedative effect of remimazolam are observed in patients of benzodiazepine users or of different races, conversion to another sedative agent such as propofol should be considered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Reena Ravindra Kadni ◽  
Mita Eunice Sarkar ◽  
Indira Menon ◽  
Anne Marie Kongari

Abstract Background Operative hysteroscopic intravascular absorption syndrome (OHIA) is the constellation of signs and symptoms due to fluid overload during hysteroscopic procedures. It can present with hyponatremia, deranged coagulation, pulmonary, and cerebral edema which are life-threatening issues. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent OHIA syndrome which was managed uneventfully. Case presentation A 26-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) patient presented with primary infertility and prolonged, heavy menstruation. The abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound (USG) revealed a large posterior intramural fibroid of size 6.1 cm × 4.2 cm with submucosal intracavitary extension. She was planned for two-step laparoscopic and hysteroscopic evaluation and resection of the myoma under general anesthesia. Severe OHIA syndrome occurred with 1.5% glycine in phase 1 resection and recurred with 0.9% sodium chloride in phase 2 resection of intrauterine myoma at two different surgical settings. The uniqueness of this case is recurrence of OHIA syndrome in the same patient despite the use of normal saline (NS) due to lack of precautionary measures for fluid management. Conclusions Normal saline as an irrigating medium may not eliminate the risk of OHIA. Lack of adequate fluid management strategies can be detrimental especially in cases of hysteroscopic myoma resections. Following a standard protocol for vigilant monitoring under general anesthesia is the key in successful management.

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