General Anesthesia
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Chuan Chiang ◽  
Kuan-Sheng Chen ◽  
Hsien-Chieh Chiu ◽  
Cheng-Shu Chung ◽  
Lee-Shuan Lin

Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection in cats with chylothorax. ANIMALS 7 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES This was a multicenter, retrospective, descriptive study. Medical records and imaging data from 4 veterinary hospitals were reviewed to identify cats with chylothorax that had undergone intrametatarsal pad injection via CT lymphangiography. In total, 7 client-owned cats were included in the study. Signalment, history, image findings, and follow-up data were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the success rate of thoracic duct (TD) enhancement and describe relevant clinical findings. RESULTS Enhancement of TDs was successful in 6 of the 7 cats within 5 to 15 minutes after initiating intrametatarsal pad injection under general anesthesia. Successful migration of contrast medium into the lymphatic vessels cranial to the popliteal lymph nodes was observed in all cats within 5 minutes after injection. The recommended dose of contrast medium to achieve TD enhancement was 1 mL/kg (0.5 mL/kg/pad; concentration, 350 mg of iodine/kg). Only 1 cat had mild swelling of the paws after the procedure, and it recovered quickly without pain medication; no cats experienced lameness. Similar to dogs and unlike in previously published reports, 72% of TD branches were located in the right hemithorax. CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection is a feasible and safe procedure for cats with chylothorax. This technique provides detailed information regarding the unique TD anatomy and cisterna chyli location. It also contributes to surgical planning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Guohua Li ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Fang Cao ◽  
Dawei Wang ◽  
Limin Zhou ◽  

Sevoflurane (SEVO) is a highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anesthetic for general anesthesia. Previous studies have shown that SEVO may induce impaired memory and recognition ability and may be associated with neurodegenerative disease, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we used a mouse AD model, APP/PS1, to study the effects of SEVO on neurodegeneration occurring in AD. We found that SEVO exposure significantly impaired the spatial reference memory, sensorimotor, and cognitive function of the mice. Mechanistically, we found that SEVO induced formation of NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and its downstream caspase 1-mediated production of IL-1β and IL-18, which subsequently deactivated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to promote neurodegeneration. Together, these data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for SEVO-induced AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (34) ◽  
pp. 10595-10603
Fang Tang ◽  
Jian-Min Yi ◽  
Hong-Yan Gong ◽  
Zi-Yun Lu ◽  
Jie Chen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. E3
Gaetano De Biase ◽  
Shaun E. Gruenbaum ◽  
James L. West ◽  
Selby Chen ◽  
Elird Bojaxhi ◽  

OBJECTIVE There has been increasing interest in the use of spinal anesthesia (SA) for spine surgery, especially within Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. Despite the wide adoption of SA by the orthopedic practices, it has not gained wide acceptance in lumbar spine surgery. Studies investigating SA versus general anesthesia (GA) in lumbar laminectomy and discectomy have found that SA reduces perioperative costs and leads to a reduction in analgesic use, as well as to shorter anesthesia and surgery time. The aim of this retrospective, case-control study was to compare the perioperative outcomes of patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS)–transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) after administration of SA with those who underwent MIS-TLIF under GA. METHODS Overall, 40 consecutive patients who underwent MIS-TLIF by a single surgeon were analyzed; 20 patients received SA and 20 patients received GA. Procedure time, intraoperative adverse events, postoperative adverse events, postoperative length of stay, 3-hour postanesthesia care unit (PACU) numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score, opioid medication, and time to first ambulation were collected for each patient. RESULTS The two groups were homogeneous for clinical characteristics. A decrease in total operating room (OR) time was found for patients who underwent MIS-TLIF after administration of SA, with a mean OR time of 156.5 ± 18.9 minutes versus 213.6 ± 47.4 minutes for patients who underwent MIS-TLIF under GA (p < 0.0001), a reduction of 27%. A decrease in total procedure time was also observed for SA versus GA (122 ± 16.7 minutes vs 175.2 ± 10 minutes; p < 0.0001). No significant differences were found in intraoperative and postoperative adverse events. There was a difference in the mean maximum NRS pain score during the first 3 hours in the PACU as patients who received SA reported a lower pain score compared with those who received GA (4.8 ± 3.5 vs 7.3 ± 2.7; p = 0.018). No significant difference was observed in morphine equivalents received by the two groups. A difference was also observed in the mean overall NRS pain score, with 2.4 ± 2.1 for the SA group versus 4.9 ± 2.3 for the GA group (p = 0.001). Patients who received SA had a shorter time to first ambulation compared with those who received GA (385.8 ± 353.8 minutes vs 855.9 ± 337.4 minutes; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study have pointed to some important observations in this patient population. SA offers unique advantages in comparison with GA for performing MIS-TLIF, including reduced OR time and postoperative pain, and faster postoperative mobilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. E7
Roberto J. Perez-Roman ◽  
Vaidya Govindarajan ◽  
Jean-Paul Bryant ◽  
Michael Y. Wang

OBJECTIVE Awake surgery has previously been found to improve patient outcomes postoperatively in a variety of procedures. Recently, multiple groups have investigated the utility of this modality for use in spine surgery. However, few current meta-analyses exist comparing patient outcomes in awake spinal anesthesia with those in general anesthesia. Therefore, the authors sought to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the utility of spinal anesthesia relative to general anesthesia in lumbar procedures. METHODS Following a comprehensive literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases, 14 clinical studies were included in our final qualitative and quantitative analyses. Of these studies, 5 investigated spinal anesthesia in lumbar discectomy, 4 discussed lumbar laminectomy, and 2 examined interbody fusion procedures. One study investigated combined lumbar decompression and fusion or decompression alone. Two studies investigated patients who underwent discectomy and laminectomy, and 1 study investigated a series of patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, posterolateral fusion, or decompression. Odds ratios, mean differences (MDs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated where appropriate. RESULTS A meta-analysis of the total anesthesia time showed that time was significantly less in patients who received spinal anesthesia for both lumbar discectomies (MD −26.53, 95% CI −38.16 to −14.89; p = 0.00001) and lumbar laminectomies (MD −11.21, 95% CI −19.66 to −2.75; p = 0.009). Additionally, the operative time was significantly shorter in patients who underwent spinal anesthesia (MD −14.94, 95% CI −20.43 to −9.45; p < 0.00001). Similarly, when analyzing overall postoperative complication rates, patients who received spinal anesthesia were significantly less likely to experience postoperative complications (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16–0.53; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, patients who received spinal anesthesia had significantly lower postoperative pain scores (MD −2.80, 95% CI −4.55 to −1.06; p = 0.002). An identical trend was seen when patients were stratified by lumbar procedures. Patients who received spinal anesthesia were significantly less likely to require postoperative analgesia (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02–0.25; p < 0.0001) and had a significantly shorter hospital length of stay (MD −0.16, 95% CI −0.29 to −0.03; p = 0.02) and intraoperative blood loss (MD −52.36, 95% CI −81.55 to −23.17; p = 0.0004). Finally, the analysis showed that spinal anesthesia cost significantly less than general anesthesia (MD −226.14, 95% CI −324.73 to −127.55; p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS This review has demonstrated the varying benefits of spinal anesthesia in awake spine surgery relative to general anesthesia in patients who underwent various lumbar procedures. The analysis has shown that spinal anesthesia may offer some benefits when compared with general anesthesia, including reduction in the duration of anesthesia, operative time, total cost, and postoperative complications. Large prospective trials will elucidate the true role of this modality in spine surgery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. E4
Kingsley Abode-Iyamah ◽  
Abdul Karim Ghaith ◽  
Archis R. Bhandarkar ◽  
Gaetano De Biase ◽  
Rami Rajjoub ◽  

OBJECTIVE Awake transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a novel technique for performing spinal fusions in patients under conscious sedation. Whether awake TLIF can reduce operative times and decrease the hospital length of stay (LOS) remains to be shown. In this study, the authors sought to assess the differences in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake TLIF and those who underwent TLIF under general anesthesia by using institutional experience at the Mayo Clinic and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. METHODS Chart review was performed for a consecutive series of patients who underwent single-level minimally invasive surgery (MIS)–TLIF performed by a single surgeon (K.A.I.) at a single institution. Additionally, the NSQIP database was queried from 2016 to 2019 for patients who underwent awake TLIF as well as propensity score–matched patients who underwent TLIF under general anesthesia. RESULTS A total of 20 patients at Mayo Clinic underwent awake single-level MIS-TLIF. The mean operative time was 122 ± 16.68 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 39 ± 30.24 ml. No intraoperative complications were reported. A total of 96 patients who underwent TLIF (24 awake and 72 under general anesthesia) were analyzed from the NSQIP database. The mean LOS was less in the awake cohort (1.4 ± 1.381 days) than the general anesthesia cohort (3 ± 2.274 days) (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Evidence from the authors’ institutional experience and national analysis has demonstrated that awake MIS-TLIF is efficient and can reduce hospital LOS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Moges Gelaw Taye ◽  
Amelework Molla ◽  
Diriba Teshome ◽  
Metages Hunie ◽  
Simegnew Kibret ◽  

Background: Early postoperative hypoxemia is a common problem after general anesthesia. The identification of factors associated with an increased occurrence of it might help healthcare professionals to hypoxemia risk patients, therefore this study aims to assess the incidence and factors associated with early postoperative hypoxemia among surgical procedures.Methods: A prospective cohort study design was conducted from February 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020, on a total of 424 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia in Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. The data was collected using a structured checklist. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to check the association.Results: The incidence of early postoperative hypoxemia was 45.8%. Patients having a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and BMI of 30-39.9 kg/m2, patients having a chronic disease, current smokers, SPO2 reading before induction of less than 95%, emergency surgery, and the absence of oxygen therapy during the period of transfer and/or in the post anesthesia care unit were significantly associated with an increased risk of hypoxemia in the early postoperative period.Conclusions: The incidence of early postoperative hypoxemia was high in Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Obese patients, patients having a chronic disease, current smokers, and lower oxygen saturations before induction, emergency surgery, and the absence of oxygen therapy were the main predictors of an increased occurrence of early postoperative hypoxemia

Gabriel Schamberg ◽  
Marcus Badgeley ◽  
Benyamin Meschede-Krasa ◽  
Ohyoon Kwon ◽  
Emery N. Brown

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. E2
Vijay Letchuman ◽  
Nitin Agarwal ◽  
Valli P. Mummaneni ◽  
Michael Y. Wang ◽  
Saman Shabani ◽  

OBJECTIVE There is a learning curve for surgeons performing “awake” spinal surgery. No comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the selection of ideal candidates for awake spinal fusion or decompression. The authors sought to formulate an algorithm to aid in patient selection for surgeons who are in the startup phase of awake spinal surgery. METHODS The authors developed an algorithm for selecting patients appropriate for awake spinal fusion or decompression using spinal anesthesia supplemented with mild sedation and local analgesia. The anesthetic protocol that was used has previously been reported in the literature. This algorithm was formulated based on a multidisciplinary team meeting and used in the first 15 patients who underwent awake lumbar surgery at a single institution. RESULTS A total of 15 patients who underwent decompression or lumbar fusion using the awake protocol were reviewed. The mean patient age was 61 ± 12 years, with a median BMI of 25.3 (IQR 2.7) and a mean Charlson Comorbidity Index of 2.1 ± 1.7; 7 patients (47%) were female. Key patient inclusion criteria were no history of anxiety, 1 to 2 levels of lumbar pathology, moderate stenosis and/or grade I spondylolisthesis, and no prior lumbar surgery at the level where the needle is introduced for anesthesia. Key exclusion criteria included severe and critical central canal stenosis or patients who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Using the novel algorithm, 14 patients (93%) successfully underwent awake spinal surgery without conversion to general anesthesia. One patient (7%) was converted to general anesthesia due to insufficient analgesia from spinal anesthesia. Overall, 93% (n = 14) of the patients were assessed as American Society of Anesthesiologists class II, with 1 patient (7%) as class III. The mean operative time was 115 minutes (± 60 minutes) with a mean estimated blood loss of 46 ± 39 mL. The median hospital length of stay was 1.3 days (IQR 0.1 days). No patients developed postoperative complications and only 1 patient (7%) required reoperation. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score decreased following operative intervention by 5.1 ± 10.8. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose an easy-to-use patient selection algorithm with the aim of assisting surgeons with patient selection for awake spinal surgery while considering BMI, patient anxiety, levels of surgery, and the extent of stenosis. The algorithm is specifically intended to assist surgeons who are in the learning curve of their first awake spinal surgery cases.

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