proportional hazards model
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sang-Youn Lee ◽  
Eun-Jeong Ko

Purpose This study aims to investigate how three critical governance decisions by foreign firms impacted their survivability post-initial public offerings (IPO): the choice of CEO (founder vs non-founder); the power the founder CEO wields relative to the board in terms of CEO duality; and board size. Design/methodology/approach This study uses data from 86 foreign firms that completed IPOs in the US market between 2000 and 2008 and adopts a Cox proportional hazards model to examine how the founder, founder CEO duality and board size influence foreign firm delisting post-IPO. Findings A founder CEO or a founder CEO with duality (i.e. when a founder CEO is also chair of the board of directors) does not support a foreign firm’s survival post-IPO. Expectedly, board size has a negative impact on post-IPO firm survivability; however, founder CEO duality positively moderates this negative relationship. Therefore, founder CEO duality plays a positive indirect role in the context of post-IPO firms with large boards. Originality/value First, while the benefits of CEO duality have been empirically ambiguous, this study clarifies how founder CEO duality manifests its positive impacts in foreign listings. Second, by focusing on board cognition, this study confirms the negative impact of large boards, but highlights that this can be mitigated by governance leadership structure. Finally, despite organizational life-cycle theorists’ advocacy of the replacement of founder CEOs with professional CEOs in sizable ventures, this study shows the benefits of their retention when the board is large.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bing Yan ◽  
Fengming Ji ◽  
Chengchuang Wu ◽  
Ye Li ◽  
Haoyu Tang ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: To analyze the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) for Wilm’s tumor (WT) in Kunming Children’s Hospital, and investigate the risk factors affecting the prognosis of WT.Method: The clinic-pathological data were collected and analyzed in patients with unilateral WT treated in Kunming Children's Hospital from January 2017 to July 2021. Research objects were selected according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The risk factors and independent risk factors that affect the prognosis of patients with WT were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. Outcome: A total of 68 children were included in this study, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 92.65%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis results showed that ethnicity (P=0.020), the tumor volume of resection (P=0.001), histological type (P<0.001), and postoperative recurrence (P<0.001) were the factors affecting the prognosis of children with WT. The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed that only the histological type (P=0.028) was the independent risk factor for the prognosis of WT.Conclusion: The efficacy of MDT for WT was satisfying. The histological type has important predictive value for the prognosis of WT, and the patient with unfavorable histology has a poor prognosis.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Duan ◽  
Napoleon Bellua Sam ◽  
Shi-Jia Wang ◽  
Yan Liu

Abstract Few studies have systematically explored the association between cognitive decline and mortality among the aged (above 80 years old) and also have limited evidence of the potential effect modifiers between them. Therefore, this study included 14,891 aged (mean age: 90.3±7.5 years) and 10,904 aged deaths with 34,486 person-years were observed. Cognitive decline was continuous and stratified into ten categories. Potential effect modifiers were identified as age, sex, blood pressure (BP) and high BP related diseases, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between them after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, leisure activities and health conditions. Compared to those with maintained high normal cognitive function, participants who have declined to severe cognitive impairment from a high normal cognitive function, low normal cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment have 55%, 56% and 63% mortality risks respectively. The multivariable-adjusted model indicated that the aged with decreasing one more point in MMSE score per year, had around 4% higher risk of mortality. There was a significant association of interaction of cognitive decline-mortality and sex (P=0.013) as well as hypertension (P=0.004) but with no significant association among age (P=0.277), high BP (P=0.082), and CVD mortality (P=0.058). Our findings suggest that periodic screen cognitive decline and strengthen BP control may be necessary for public health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhou Wensu ◽  
Chen Wen ◽  
Zhou Fenfen ◽  
Wang Wenjuan ◽  
Ling Li

Background and Objectives: Studies that investigate the links between particulate matter ≤2. 5 μm (PM2.5) and hypertension among the elderly population, especially those including aged over 80 years, are limited. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of hypertension incidence among Chinese elderly.Methods: This prospective cohort study used 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2018 wave data from a public database, the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a national survey investigating the health of those aged over 65 years in China. We enrolled cohort participants who were free of hypertension at baseline (2008) from 706 counties (districts) and followed up in the 2011, 2014, and 2018 survey waves. The annual PM2.5 concentration of 706 counties (districts) units was derived from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group database as the exposure variable, and exposure to PM2.5 was defined as 1-year average of PM2.5 concentration before hypertension event occurrence or last interview (only for censoring). A Cox proportional hazards model with penalized spline was used to examine the non-linear association between PM2.5 concentration and hypertension risk. A random-effects Cox proportional hazards model was built to explore the relationship between each 1 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3 and quartile increment in PM2.5 concentration and hypertension incidence after adjusting for confounding variables. The modification effects of the different characteristics of the respondents were also explored.Results: A total of 7,432 participants aged 65–116 years were enrolled at baseline. The median of PM2.5 exposure concentration of all the participants was 52.7 (inter-quartile range, IQR = 29.1) μg/m3. Overall, the non-linear association between PM2.5 and hypertension incidence risk indicated that there was no safe threshold for PM2.5 exposure. The higher PM2.5 exposure, the greater risk for hypertension incidence. Each 1 μg/m3 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01–1.02] and 10 μg/m3 (AHR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.09–1.16) increments in PM2.5, were associated with the incidence of hypertension after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Compared to first quartile (Q1) exposure, the adjusted HRs of hypertension incidence for the Q2, Q3 and Q4 exposure of PM2.5 were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13–1.51), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.15–1.60), and 1.83 (95% CI: 1.53–2.17), respectively. The effects appear to be stronger among those without a pension, living in a rural setting, and located in central/western regions.Conclusion: We found no safe threshold for PM2.5 exposure related to hypertension risk, and more rigorous approaches for PM2.5 control were needed. The elderly without a pension, living in rural and setting in the central/western regions may be more vulnerable to the effects of PM2.5 exposure.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Author(s):  
Blanca Valenzuela-Méndez ◽  
Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez ◽  
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Gutiérrez ◽  
Rafael Bohollo-de-Austria ◽  
Ángel Estella ◽  
...  

Early identification of severe viral pneumonia in influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) patients is extremely important for prompt admission to the ICU. The objective is to evaluate the usefulness of MR-proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) compared to C reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and ferritin in the prognosis of influenza A pneumonia. This prospective, observational, multicenter study included one hundred thirteen patients with confirmed influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) admitted to an Emergency Department and ICUs of six hospitals in Spain. Measurements and Main Results: one-hundred thirteen patients with confirmed influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) were enrolled. Seventy-five subjects (mortality 29.3%) with severe pneumonia caused by influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus (H1N1vIPN) were compared with 38 controls (CG).The median MR-proADM levels at hospital admission were 1.2 nmol/L (IQR (0.8–2.6) vs. 0.5 nmol/L (IQR 0.2–0.9) in the CG (p = 0.01), and PCT levels were 0.43 μg/L (IQR 0.2–1.2) in the H1N1vIPN group and 0.1 μg/L (IQR 0.1–0.2) in the CG (p < 0.01). CRP levels at admission were 15.5 mg/dL(IQR 9.2–24.9) in H1N1vIPN and 8.6 mg/dL(IQR 3–17.3) in the CG (p < 0.01). Ferritin levels at admission were 558.1 ng/mL(IQR 180–1880) in H1N1vIPN and 167.7 ng/mL(IQR 34.8–292.9) in the CG (p < 0.01). A breakpoint for hospital admission of MR-proADM of 1.1 nmol/L showed a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 90% (AUC-ROC0.822). Non-survivors showed higher MR-proADM levels: median of 2.5 nmol/L vs. 0.9 nmol/L among survivors (p < 0.01). PCT, CRP, and ferritin levels also showed significant differences in predicting mortality. The MR-proADM AUC-ROC for mortality was 0.853 (p < 0.01). In a Cox proportional hazards model, MR-proADM levels > 1.2 nmol/L at hospital admission were significant predictive factors for ICU and 90-day mortality (HR: 1.3). Conclusions: the initial MR-proADM, ferritin, CRP, and PCT levels effectively determine adverse outcomes and risk of ICU admission and mortality in patients with influenza virus pneumonia. MR-proADM has the highest potency for survival prediction.


Author(s):  
Jin Park ◽  
Soo Jin Kang ◽  
Hyuk Yoon ◽  
Jihye Park ◽  
Hyeon Jeong Oh ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study prospectively evaluated the risk of relapse according to the status of histologic activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who achieved deep remission. Methods Patients with UC in clinical remission (partial Mayo score ≤1) and endoscopic remission (ulcerative colitis endoscopic index of severity ≤1) were enrolled. Rectal biopsies were performed in patients, and histologic remission was defined as a Robarts histopathology index of ≤3. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to determine fecal calprotectin cutoff values for histologic remission. The cumulative risk of relapse was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Among the 187 patients enrolled, 82 (43.9%) achieved histologic remission. The best cutoff value of fecal calprotectin for predicting histologic remission was 80 mg/kg (area under the curve of 0.646, sensitivity of 74%, and specificity of 61%). Among 142 patients who were followed up for &gt;3 months, 56 (39.4%) showed clinical relapse during a median of 42 weeks. The risk of relapse was lower in patients with histologic remission than in those with histologic activity (P = .026). In multivariable analysis, histologic remission (hazard ratio [HR], 0.551; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.316-0.958; P = .035), elevated C-reactive protein levels (HR, 3.652; 95% CI, 1.400-9.526; P = .008), and history of steroid use (HR, 2.398; 95% CI, 1.196-4.808; P = .014) were significantly associated with clinical relapse. Conclusions In patients with UC who achieved clinical and endoscopic remission, histologic remission was independently associated with a lower risk of clinical relapse.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Keke Song ◽  
Tingting Yang ◽  
Wei Gao

Abstract Background Serum chloride (Cl−) is one of the most essential extracellular anions. Based on emerging evidence obtained from patients with kidney or heart disease, hypochloremia has been recognized as an independent predictor of mortality. Nevertheless, excessive Cl− can also cause death in severely ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hyperchloremia and high mortality rate in patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Methods We enrolled 2131 patients from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III database version 1.4 (MIMIC-III v1.4) from 2001 to 2012. Selected SICU patients were more than 18 years old and survived more than 72 h. A serum Cl− level ≥ 108 mEq/L was defined as hyperchloremia. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between hyperchloremia (n = 664) at 72 h post-ICU admission and no hyperchloremia (n = 1467). The Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (Lowess) approach was utilized to investigate the correlation between serum Cl- and the thirty-day mortality rate. The Cox proportional-hazards model was employed to investigate whether serum chlorine at 72 h post-ICU admission was independently related to in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes. Kaplan-Meier curve of thirty-day and ninety-day mortality and serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission was further constructed. Furthermore, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the relationship between serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission and the thirty-day mortality from all causes. Results A J-shaped correlation was observed, indicating that hyperchloremia was linked to an elevated risk of thirty-day mortality from all causes. In the multivariate analyses, it was established that hyperchloremia remained a valuable predictor of in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes; with adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for hyperchloremia of 1.35 (1.02 ~ 1.77), 1.67 (1.28 ~ 2.19), and 1.39 (1.12 ~ 1.73), respectively. In subgroup analysis, we observed hyperchloremia had a significant interaction with AKI (P for interaction: 0.017), but there were no interactions with coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (P for interaction: 0.418, 0.157, 0.103, respectively). Conclusion Hyperchloremia at 72 h post-ICU admission and increasing serum Cl− were associated with elevated mortality risk from all causes in severely ill SICU patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Na Sun ◽  
Jiadong Chu ◽  
Wei Hu ◽  
Xuanli Chen ◽  
Nengjun Yi ◽  
...  

AbstractThere have been few investigations of cancer prognosis models based on Bayesian hierarchical models. In this study, we used a novel Bayesian method to screen mRNAs and estimate the effects of mRNAs on the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Based on the identified mRNAs, we can build a prognostic model combining mRNAs and clinical features, allowing us to explore new molecules with the potential to predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. The mRNA data (n = 594) and clinical data (n = 470) for lung adenocarcinoma were obtained from the TCGA database. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), univariate Cox proportional hazards regression, and the Bayesian hierarchical Cox proportional hazards model were used to explore the mRNAs related to the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify independent markers. The prediction performance of the prognostic model was evaluated not only by the internal cross-validation but also by the external validation based on the GEO dataset (n = 437). With the Bayesian hierarchical Cox proportional hazards model, a 14-gene signature that included CPS1, CTPS2, DARS2, IGFBP3, MCM5, MCM7, NME4, NT5E, PLK1, POLR3G, PTTG1, SERPINB5, TXNRD1, and TYMS was established to predict overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the 14-gene signature (HR 3.960, 95% CI 2.710–5.786), T classification (T1, reference; T3, HR 1.925, 95% CI 1.104–3.355) and N classification (N0, reference; N1, HR 2.212, 95% CI 1.520–3.220; N2, HR 2.260, 95% CI 1.499–3.409) were independent predictors. The C-index of the model was 0.733 and 0.735, respectively, after performing cross-validation and external validation, a nomogram was provided for better prediction in clinical application. Bayesian hierarchical Cox proportional hazards models can be used to integrate high-dimensional omics information into a prediction model for lung adenocarcinoma to improve the prognostic prediction and discover potential targets. This approach may be a powerful predictive tool for clinicians treating malignant tumours.


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