cox proportional hazards model
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sang-Youn Lee ◽  
Eun-Jeong Ko

Purpose This study aims to investigate how three critical governance decisions by foreign firms impacted their survivability post-initial public offerings (IPO): the choice of CEO (founder vs non-founder); the power the founder CEO wields relative to the board in terms of CEO duality; and board size. Design/methodology/approach This study uses data from 86 foreign firms that completed IPOs in the US market between 2000 and 2008 and adopts a Cox proportional hazards model to examine how the founder, founder CEO duality and board size influence foreign firm delisting post-IPO. Findings A founder CEO or a founder CEO with duality (i.e. when a founder CEO is also chair of the board of directors) does not support a foreign firm’s survival post-IPO. Expectedly, board size has a negative impact on post-IPO firm survivability; however, founder CEO duality positively moderates this negative relationship. Therefore, founder CEO duality plays a positive indirect role in the context of post-IPO firms with large boards. Originality/value First, while the benefits of CEO duality have been empirically ambiguous, this study clarifies how founder CEO duality manifests its positive impacts in foreign listings. Second, by focusing on board cognition, this study confirms the negative impact of large boards, but highlights that this can be mitigated by governance leadership structure. Finally, despite organizational life-cycle theorists’ advocacy of the replacement of founder CEOs with professional CEOs in sizable ventures, this study shows the benefits of their retention when the board is large.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 431
Su Young Lee ◽  
Eric Chung ◽  
Eun-Suk Cho ◽  
Jae-Hoon Lee ◽  
Eun Jung Park ◽  

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of combined sarcopenia and inflammation classification (CSIC) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The skeletal muscle index (SMI) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were measured in 1270 patients who underwent surgery between January 2005 and April 2014. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the correlation of sarcopenia, NLR, and CSIC, with progression-free survival (PFS). The integrated area under the curve (iAUC) was used to compare the discriminatory performance of each model. Using the cut-off values for SMI suggested by Martin et al. and for an NLR of 2.26, the CSIC was defined as follows: nonsarcopenia with low NLR (group 1), nonsarcopenia with high NLR (group 2), sarcopenia with low NLR (group 3), and sarcopenia with high NLR (group 4). Sarcopenia alone was not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis identified that CSIC (group 4 vs. group 1; hazard ratio (HR), 1.726; 95% CI, 1.130–2.634; p = 0.011) and NLR (HR, 1.600; 95% CI, 1.203–2.128; p = 0.001) were independently associated with PFS. The CSIC improved the prediction accuracy of PFS compared with NLR (iAUC mean difference = 0.011; 95% CI, 0.0018–0.028). In conclusion, the combination of sarcopenia and NLR could improve prognostic accuracy, and thus compensate for the limitation of sarcopenia.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 362
Xiaoting Lu ◽  
Rongzhu Huang ◽  
Shuyi Li ◽  
Aiping Fang ◽  
Yuming Chen ◽  

Previous studies have explored associations between betaine and diabetes, but few have considered the effects of genes on them. We aimed to examine associations between serum betaine, methyl-metabolizing genetic polymorphisms and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. This prospective study comprised 1565 subjects aged 40–75 without type 2 diabetes at baseline. Serum betaine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Genotyping of methyl-metabolizing genes was detected by Illumina ASA-750K arrays. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median of 8.9 years of follow-up, 213 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of serum betaine, those in the highest quartile had lower risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusted HRs (95%CIs) was 0.46 (0.31, 0.69). For methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) G1793A (rs2274976) and MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131), participants carrying 1793GA + AA and 1298AC + CC had lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Interactions of serum betaine and genotype of MTHFR G1793A and MTHFR A1298C could be found influencing type 2 diabetes risk. Our findings indicate that higher serum betaine, mutations of MTHFR G1793A and A1298C, as well as the joint effects of them, are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Bing Yan ◽  
Fengming Ji ◽  
Chengchuang Wu ◽  
Ye Li ◽  
Haoyu Tang ◽  

Abstract Objective: To analyze the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) for Wilm’s tumor (WT) in Kunming Children’s Hospital, and investigate the risk factors affecting the prognosis of WT.Method: The clinic-pathological data were collected and analyzed in patients with unilateral WT treated in Kunming Children's Hospital from January 2017 to July 2021. Research objects were selected according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The risk factors and independent risk factors that affect the prognosis of patients with WT were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. Outcome: A total of 68 children were included in this study, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 92.65%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis results showed that ethnicity (P=0.020), the tumor volume of resection (P=0.001), histological type (P<0.001), and postoperative recurrence (P<0.001) were the factors affecting the prognosis of children with WT. The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed that only the histological type (P=0.028) was the independent risk factor for the prognosis of WT.Conclusion: The efficacy of MDT for WT was satisfying. The histological type has important predictive value for the prognosis of WT, and the patient with unfavorable histology has a poor prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Jun Duan ◽  
Napoleon Bellua Sam ◽  
Shi-Jia Wang ◽  
Yan Liu

Abstract Few studies have systematically explored the association between cognitive decline and mortality among the aged (above 80 years old) and also have limited evidence of the potential effect modifiers between them. Therefore, this study included 14,891 aged (mean age: 90.3±7.5 years) and 10,904 aged deaths with 34,486 person-years were observed. Cognitive decline was continuous and stratified into ten categories. Potential effect modifiers were identified as age, sex, blood pressure (BP) and high BP related diseases, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between them after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, leisure activities and health conditions. Compared to those with maintained high normal cognitive function, participants who have declined to severe cognitive impairment from a high normal cognitive function, low normal cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment have 55%, 56% and 63% mortality risks respectively. The multivariable-adjusted model indicated that the aged with decreasing one more point in MMSE score per year, had around 4% higher risk of mortality. There was a significant association of interaction of cognitive decline-mortality and sex (P=0.013) as well as hypertension (P=0.004) but with no significant association among age (P=0.277), high BP (P=0.082), and CVD mortality (P=0.058). Our findings suggest that periodic screen cognitive decline and strengthen BP control may be necessary for public health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Morteza Shamsizadeh ◽  
Ali Fathi Jouzdani ◽  
Farshid Rahimi-Bashar

Introduction. The incidence and risk factors for ventilator-related pneumonia (VAP) in patients with delirium are deficient, and there is a lack of in-depth knowledge of the impact of VAP on outcomes in this population. We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of VAP in patients with delirium. Materials and Methods. This prospective observational study was performed in a surgical ICU at Be’sat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, between 2018 and 2019. A total of 108 patients with delirium were identified using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for the ICU and Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and enrolled in this study. The association between VAP and delirium, risk factors, and outcomes (ICU length of stay and ICU mortality) for VAP were investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic and simple linear regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval. Results. Of 108 delirium patients, 86 patients (79.6%) underwent mechanical ventilation (MV) and 16 patients (18.6%) experienced VAP during ICU stay. The median onset of VAP was 6.5 (IQR 4.2–7.7) days after intubation. Delirium patients with VAP stayed longer in the ICU (21.68 ± 4.26 vs.12.93 ± 1.71, P < 0.001 ) and also had higher ICU mortality (31.25% vs. 0%, P < 0.001 ) than subjects without VAP. According to multivariate cox regression, the expected HR for VAP was 53.5% lower for patients with early-onset delirium than in patients with late-onset delirium (HR: 0.465, 95% CI: 0.241–0.894, P = 0.022 ). However, the expected hazard for VAP was 1.854 times and 4.604 times higher in patients with longer ICU stay (HR: 1.854, 95% CI: 1.689–3.059, P = 0.032 ) and in patients with a prolonged MV duration (HR: 4.604, 95%CI: 1.567–6.708, P = 0.023 ). Conclusion. According to the results, there seems to be an inverse relationship between early onset of delirium and VAP. This finding cannot be conclusively cited, and more studies in this filed should be conducted with a larger sample size. Furthermore, VAP in delirium patients is associated with increases in poor outcomes (higher ICU mortality) and the use of medical resources (longer stay in the ICU and MV duration).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhou Wensu ◽  
Chen Wen ◽  
Zhou Fenfen ◽  
Wang Wenjuan ◽  
Ling Li

Background and Objectives: Studies that investigate the links between particulate matter ≤2. 5 μm (PM2.5) and hypertension among the elderly population, especially those including aged over 80 years, are limited. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of hypertension incidence among Chinese elderly.Methods: This prospective cohort study used 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2018 wave data from a public database, the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a national survey investigating the health of those aged over 65 years in China. We enrolled cohort participants who were free of hypertension at baseline (2008) from 706 counties (districts) and followed up in the 2011, 2014, and 2018 survey waves. The annual PM2.5 concentration of 706 counties (districts) units was derived from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group database as the exposure variable, and exposure to PM2.5 was defined as 1-year average of PM2.5 concentration before hypertension event occurrence or last interview (only for censoring). A Cox proportional hazards model with penalized spline was used to examine the non-linear association between PM2.5 concentration and hypertension risk. A random-effects Cox proportional hazards model was built to explore the relationship between each 1 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3 and quartile increment in PM2.5 concentration and hypertension incidence after adjusting for confounding variables. The modification effects of the different characteristics of the respondents were also explored.Results: A total of 7,432 participants aged 65–116 years were enrolled at baseline. The median of PM2.5 exposure concentration of all the participants was 52.7 (inter-quartile range, IQR = 29.1) μg/m3. Overall, the non-linear association between PM2.5 and hypertension incidence risk indicated that there was no safe threshold for PM2.5 exposure. The higher PM2.5 exposure, the greater risk for hypertension incidence. Each 1 μg/m3 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01–1.02] and 10 μg/m3 (AHR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.09–1.16) increments in PM2.5, were associated with the incidence of hypertension after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Compared to first quartile (Q1) exposure, the adjusted HRs of hypertension incidence for the Q2, Q3 and Q4 exposure of PM2.5 were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13–1.51), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.15–1.60), and 1.83 (95% CI: 1.53–2.17), respectively. The effects appear to be stronger among those without a pension, living in a rural setting, and located in central/western regions.Conclusion: We found no safe threshold for PM2.5 exposure related to hypertension risk, and more rigorous approaches for PM2.5 control were needed. The elderly without a pension, living in rural and setting in the central/western regions may be more vulnerable to the effects of PM2.5 exposure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Blanca Valenzuela-Méndez ◽  
Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez ◽  
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Gutiérrez ◽  
Rafael Bohollo-de-Austria ◽  
Ángel Estella ◽  

Early identification of severe viral pneumonia in influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) patients is extremely important for prompt admission to the ICU. The objective is to evaluate the usefulness of MR-proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) compared to C reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and ferritin in the prognosis of influenza A pneumonia. This prospective, observational, multicenter study included one hundred thirteen patients with confirmed influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) admitted to an Emergency Department and ICUs of six hospitals in Spain. Measurements and Main Results: one-hundred thirteen patients with confirmed influenza virus A (H1N1pdm09) were enrolled. Seventy-five subjects (mortality 29.3%) with severe pneumonia caused by influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus (H1N1vIPN) were compared with 38 controls (CG).The median MR-proADM levels at hospital admission were 1.2 nmol/L (IQR (0.8–2.6) vs. 0.5 nmol/L (IQR 0.2–0.9) in the CG (p = 0.01), and PCT levels were 0.43 μg/L (IQR 0.2–1.2) in the H1N1vIPN group and 0.1 μg/L (IQR 0.1–0.2) in the CG (p < 0.01). CRP levels at admission were 15.5 mg/dL(IQR 9.2–24.9) in H1N1vIPN and 8.6 mg/dL(IQR 3–17.3) in the CG (p < 0.01). Ferritin levels at admission were 558.1 ng/mL(IQR 180–1880) in H1N1vIPN and 167.7 ng/mL(IQR 34.8–292.9) in the CG (p < 0.01). A breakpoint for hospital admission of MR-proADM of 1.1 nmol/L showed a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 90% (AUC-ROC0.822). Non-survivors showed higher MR-proADM levels: median of 2.5 nmol/L vs. 0.9 nmol/L among survivors (p < 0.01). PCT, CRP, and ferritin levels also showed significant differences in predicting mortality. The MR-proADM AUC-ROC for mortality was 0.853 (p < 0.01). In a Cox proportional hazards model, MR-proADM levels > 1.2 nmol/L at hospital admission were significant predictive factors for ICU and 90-day mortality (HR: 1.3). Conclusions: the initial MR-proADM, ferritin, CRP, and PCT levels effectively determine adverse outcomes and risk of ICU admission and mortality in patients with influenza virus pneumonia. MR-proADM has the highest potency for survival prediction.

Jin Park ◽  
Soo Jin Kang ◽  
Hyuk Yoon ◽  
Jihye Park ◽  
Hyeon Jeong Oh ◽  

Abstract Background This study prospectively evaluated the risk of relapse according to the status of histologic activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who achieved deep remission. Methods Patients with UC in clinical remission (partial Mayo score ≤1) and endoscopic remission (ulcerative colitis endoscopic index of severity ≤1) were enrolled. Rectal biopsies were performed in patients, and histologic remission was defined as a Robarts histopathology index of ≤3. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to determine fecal calprotectin cutoff values for histologic remission. The cumulative risk of relapse was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Among the 187 patients enrolled, 82 (43.9%) achieved histologic remission. The best cutoff value of fecal calprotectin for predicting histologic remission was 80 mg/kg (area under the curve of 0.646, sensitivity of 74%, and specificity of 61%). Among 142 patients who were followed up for &gt;3 months, 56 (39.4%) showed clinical relapse during a median of 42 weeks. The risk of relapse was lower in patients with histologic remission than in those with histologic activity (P = .026). In multivariable analysis, histologic remission (hazard ratio [HR], 0.551; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.316-0.958; P = .035), elevated C-reactive protein levels (HR, 3.652; 95% CI, 1.400-9.526; P = .008), and history of steroid use (HR, 2.398; 95% CI, 1.196-4.808; P = .014) were significantly associated with clinical relapse. Conclusions In patients with UC who achieved clinical and endoscopic remission, histologic remission was independently associated with a lower risk of clinical relapse.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document