phase interface
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2022 ◽  
Jungang Wang ◽  
Linjuan Zhang ◽  
Jing Xie ◽  
Di Li

Abstract Design and screening electrocatalysts for gas evolution reactions suffer from scanty understanding of multi-phase processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Due to the complexity of multi-phase interface, it is still a great challenge to capture gas evolution dynamics under operando condition to precisely portray the intrinsic catalytic performance of interface. Here, we establish a single particle imaging method to real time monitor a potential-dependent vertical motion or hopping of electrocatalysts induced by electrogenerated gas nanobubbles. The hopping feature of single particle is closely correlated with intrinsic activities of electrocatalysts, thus is developed to be an indicator to evaluate gas evolution performance of various electrocatalysts. This optical indicator diminishes interferences from heterogeneous morphologies, non-Faradaic processes and parasitic side reactions that are unavoidable in conventional electrochemical measurements, therefore enables precise evaluation and high-throughput screening of catalysts for gas evolution systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
pp. 29-33
Asad Salem

The stability of a two-phase interface is a crucial occurrence that involves the design of many engineering applications. It correlates the spatial and droplet size-distributions of many fluid spraying applications and has a great effect on the estimations of the critical heat flux of systems that involves phase change or evaporation. However, the existing hydrodynamic models are only able to predict the stability of a plane fluid sheet, surrounded by an infinite pool of liquid. The case of a thin sheet of liquid surrounding a vapor sheet and enclosed between two walls has not been studied yet. The present paper solves this problem using a linearized stability analysis. Velocity potentials satisfying these conditions are introduced and a complete analysis is presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Hongbo Zhang ◽  
Shaobo Zhang ◽  
Jiang Liu ◽  
Bilong Liu

Weyl physics in acoustic and elastic systems has drawn extensive attention. In this paper, Weyl points of shear horizontal guided waves are realized by one-dimensional phononic crystal plates, in which one physical dimension plus two geometrical parameters constitute a synthetic three-dimensional space. Based on the finite element method, we have not only observed the synthetic Weyl points but also explored the Weyl interface states and the reflection phase vortices, which have further proved the topological phase interface states. As the first realization of three-dimensional topological phases through one-dimensional phononic crystal plates in the synthetic dimension, this research demonstrates the great potential of applicable one-dimensional plate structural systems in detecting higher-dimensional topological phenomena.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Shweta Raturi ◽  
B. V. Rathish Kumar

Abstract In the present article, the analytical solution for creeping motion of a drop/bubble characterized by insoluble surfactant is examined at the instant it passes the center of a spherical container filled with Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number. The presence of surfactant characterizes the interfacial region by an axisymmetric interfacial tension gradient and coefficient of surface dilatational viscosity. Under the assumption of the small capillary number, the deformation of spherical phase interface is not taken into account. The computations not only yield information on drag force and wall correction factor, but also on interfacial velocity and flow field for different values of surface tension gradient and surface dilatational viscosity. In the limiting cases, the analytical solutions describing the drag force and wall correction factor for a drop in a bounded medium reduces to expressions previously stated by other authors in literature. The results reveal the strong influence of the surface dilatational viscosity and surface tension gradient on the motion of drop/bubble. Increasing the surface tension gradient and surface dilatational viscosity, results in linear variation of drag force. When the surface tension gradient increases, the drag force for unbounded medium increases more as compared to the bounded medium hence wall correction factor decreases with increase in surface tension gradient whereas it increases with increase in surface dilatational viscosity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2114 (1) ◽  
pp. 012043
D V Alexandrov ◽  
P K Galenko

Abstract The solid-phase pattern in the form of a dendrite is one of the frequently met structures produced from undercooled liquids. In the last decades, an analytical approach describing the steady-state crystal growth in the presence of conductive heat and mass transport has been constructed. However, experimental works show that crystal patterns frequently grow in the presence of convection. In this paper, a theoretical description based on convective heat and solute concentration transport near the solid/liquid phase interface is developed. The stable regime of crystallization in the presence of vigorous convection near the steady-state crystal vertex is studied. The stability analysis, determining the stable growth mode, and the undercooling balance law have been applied to deduce the stable values for the growth rate and tip diameter. Our analytical predictions (with convective transport) well describe experimental data for a small melt undercooling. Moreover, we compare both convective and conductive mechanisms in the vicinity of the crystal vertex. Our theory shows that convective fluxes substantially change the steady-state growth of crystals.

2021 ◽  
pp. 134348
Tong Shi ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  
Hao Feng ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Qiang Li

2021 ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Yusuke Hirayama ◽  
Zheng Liu ◽  
Kazuyuki Suzuki ◽  
Wataru Yamaguchi ◽  

Abstract L10-ordered FeNi alloy (tetrataenite), a promising candidate for rare-earth-free and low-cost permanent magnet applications, is attracting increasing attention from academic and industrial communities. Highly ordered single-phase L10-FeNi is difficult to synthesis efficiently because of its low chemical order-disorder transition temperature (200–320 ℃). A non-equilibrium synthetic route utilizing a nitrogen topotactic reaction has been considered a valid approach, although the phase transformation mechanism is currently unknown. Herein, we investigated the basis of this reaction, namely the formation mechanism of the tetragonal FeNiN precursor phase during the nitridation of FeNi nanopowders. Detailed microstructure analysis revealed that the FeNiN precursor phase could preferentially nucleated at the nanotwinned region during nitridation and subsequently grew following a massive transformation, with high-index irrational orientation relationships and ledgewise growth motion detected at the migrating phase interface. This is the first report of a massive phase transformation detected in an Fe-Ni-N system and provides new insights into the phase transformation during the nitriding process. This work is expected to promote the synthetic optimization of fully ordered FeNi alloys for various magnetic applications.

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