prolonged icu stay
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Paulina S. C. Kliem ◽  
Kai Tisljar ◽  
Sira M. Baumann ◽  
Pascale Grzonka ◽  
Gian Marco De Marchis ◽  

Respiratory infections following status epilepticus (SE) are frequent, and associated with higher mortality, prolonged ICU stay, and higher rates of refractory SE. Lack of airway protection may contribute to respiratory infectious complications. This study investigates the order and frequency of physicians treating a simulated SE following a systematic Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure (ABCDE) approach, identifies risk factors for non-adherence, and analyzes the compliance of an ABCDE guided approach to SE with current guidelines. We conducted a prospective single-blinded high-fidelity trial at a Swiss academic simulator training center. Physicians of different affiliations were confronted with a simulated SE. Physicians (n = 74) recognized SE and performed a median of four of the five ABCDE checks (interquartile range 3–4). Thereof, 5% performed a complete assessment. Airways were checked within the recommended timeframe in 46%, breathing in 66%, circulation in 92%, and disability in 96%. Head-to-toe (exposure) examination was performed in 15%. Airways were protected in a timely manner in 14%, oxygen supplied in 69%, and antiseizure drugs (ASDs) administered in 99%. Participants’ neurologic affiliation was associated with performance of fewer checks (regression coefficient −0.49; p = 0.015). We conclude that adherence to the ABCDE approach in a simulated SE was infrequent, but, if followed, resulted in adherence to treatment steps and more frequent protection of airways.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 430-432
Chirantap Oza ◽  
Madhura Karguppikar ◽  
Vaman Khadilkar ◽  
Anuradha Khadilkar

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1)also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation of AIRE gene on chromosome 21q22.3 with an overall prevalence of <1:100,000. Here, we present a 16-year-old male having clinical history of evolution of symptoms for oral candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency (AI). He developed rare endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations such as type-1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune hepatitis, respectively. The patient while on hormone replacement therapy along with immunosuppressants developed liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension with esophageal varices and candidiasis. Subsequently, he was admitted for complaints of cough, cold and fever and was confirmed to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In his prolonged ICU stay of 26 days, he required oxygen therapy, intravenous glucocorticoids, remdesivir, low molecular weight heparin, and hemodynamic support with inotropes. His medical management with subcutaneous insulin therapy and azathioprine was continued. He was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms and negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 and was advised radiological and clinical follow-up. Reports suggest that risk of severe COVID does not increase in patients with AI or autoimmunity. However, our patient possibly developed severe COVID not only due to AI and autoimmunity but also associated rare manifestations like hyperglycemia due to T1D and cirrhosis. Thus, good glycemic control and well-tolerated modern immunosuppressant therapy may be useful in improving prognosis of severe COVID-19 illness in patients with APS-1.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 234-236
Deepali Bhandari Parashar ◽  
Manav Manchanda ◽  
Sunil Nagar

A 54 years old female came to emergency with the complaints of pain in abdomen, recurrent vomiting, abdominal distention and not able to pass flatus since two days. Patient was managed in intensive care unit and was empirically put on Meropenem and Targocid. She developed multiple episodes of loose motion, and stool culture was sent which was positive for Clostridium defficle. Therefore, patient was put on Vancomycin and Metrogyl. The blood cultures reported growth of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. Infection with Leuconostoc may cause fever, intravenous catheter-related sepsis, bacteremia, abdominal pain, gastroenteritis, colitis or meningitis. To summarize this rare organism which is most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, was isolated in a previously healthy individual, post Vancomycin therapy with prolonged ICU stays.

2021 ◽  
Vicente Abril ◽  
Neus Gómez ◽  
Hilary Piedrahita ◽  
Mercedes Chanzá ◽  
Nuria Tormo ◽  

Abstract BackgroundCoinfections in COVID19 appear to worsen hospitalized patients prognosis.ObjectiveTo describe the characteristics of bacterial and fungal coinfections in patients admitted for COVID19 and to identify the risk factors associated with its occurrence.Patients and MethodsSingle-center retrospective study reviewing medical records of patients with COVID19 diagnosed with bacterial or fungal infection during hospital admission.Results333 patients were analyzed during March 15-May 15, 2020. 16.82% had some coinfection during admission. Coinfections were more frequent in patients with comorbidities (80.36% vs 19.64% p<0.025) and in those ICU admitted (52.46% vs 8.86%, p<0.001). Coinfections were significantly more frequent in patients with neutrophilia>7500 and increased procalcitonin on admission as well as lymphopenia<1500 on day 5. Mortality in patients with coinfection was 26.79% vs 23.47% in non-coinfected (p 0.596). Length of stay was longer in coinfected patients (mean 30.59 vs 13.47, p<0.01). Most frequent microorganisms were Enterococci, Candida spp, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. 74% of patients received ceftriaxone: 17.34% of those treated had a coinfection compared to 15.48% not treated (p 0.694).ConclusionsOccurrence of coinfections is frequent and prolongs hospital stay without influencing mortality. The presence of comorbidities and ICU stay were identified as the main risk factor for coinfection, while increased neutrophils and procalcitonin at admission and lymphopenia during evolution were the main biological predictors. Enterococcus was the most frequent pathogen. Ceftriaxone use does not protect against appearance of bacterial infections. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated fungus and was associated with prolonged ICU stay.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (5) ◽  
pp. 20586-20598
Gustavo Gomes Rodrigues ◽  
Ianna Rodrigues Vitorio ◽  
Priscila Nunes De Carvalho ◽  
Isabela Rolim Maia Carvalhaes ◽  
Gabriella Ferreira Furtunato ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (19) ◽  
pp. 4412
Markus Jäckel ◽  
Nico Aicher ◽  
Paul Marc Biever ◽  
Laura Heine ◽  
Xavier Bemtgen ◽  

Background: Delirium complicating the course of Intensive care unit (ICU) therapy is a known driver of morbidity and mortality. It has been speculated that infection with the neurotrophic SARS-CoV-2 might promote delirium. Methods: Retrospective registry analysis including all patients treated at least 48 h on a medical intensive care unit. The primary endpoint was development of delirium as diagnosed by Nursing Delirium screening scale ≥2. Results were confirmed by propensity score matching. Results: 542 patients were included. The primary endpoint was reached in 352/542 (64.9%) patients, without significant differences between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients (51.4% and 65.9%, respectively, p = 0.07) and correlated with prolonged ICU stay in both groups. In a subgroup of patients with ICU stay >10 days delirium was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 correlated independently with less ICU delirium (p ≤ 0.01). In the propensity score matched cohort, patients with COVID-19 had significantly lower delirium incidence compared to the matched control patients (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Delirium is frequent in critically ill patients with and without COVID-19 treated at an intensive care unit. Data suggests that COVID-19 itself is not a driver of delirium per se.

2021 ◽  
Ferdinand Jr Rivera Gerod ◽  
Edgar Ongjoco ◽  
Rod Castro ◽  
Armin Masbang ◽  
Elmer Casley Repotente ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe development of nosocomial pneumonia after cardiac surgery is a significant post-operative complication that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with it and to determine its clinical impact in terms of in-hospital mortality and morbidity.MethodsThis is a retrospective cohort study conducted among all adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery from 2014-2019 in St. Luke’s Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines. Baseline characteristics and possible risk factors for pneumonia were retrieved from medical records. Nosocomial pneumonia was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Clinical outcomes include in-hospital mortality and morbidity. Odds ratios from logistic regression was computed to determine risk factors associated with pneumonia using STATA 15.0.ResultsOut of 373 patients included in this study, 104 (28%) patients acquired pneumonia. Most surgeries were coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (71.58%), followed by valve repair/replacement (29.76%). Neither age, sex, BMI, diabetes, LV dysfunction, renal dysfunction, COPD/asthma, urgency of surgery, surgical time, nor smoking showed association in the development of pneumonia. However, preoperative stay of >2 days was associated with 92.3% (95%CI 18–213%) increased odds of having pneumonia (p=.009). Also, every additional hour on mechanical ventilation conferred 0.8% (95%CI, 0.3–1%) greater odds of acquiring pneumonia (p=.003).Patients who developed pneumonia had 3.9 times odds of mortality (95%CI 1.51–9.89, p=.005), 3.8 times odds of prolonged hospitalization (95%CI 1.81–7.90,p<.001), 6.4 times odds of prolonged ICU stay (95%CI 3.59–11.35,p<.001), and 9.5 times odds of postoperative reintubation (95%CI 3.01–29.76,p<.001). ConclusionAmong adult patients undergoing cardiac surgeries, prolonged preoperative hospital stay and prolonged mechanical ventilation were both associated with an increased risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Those who developed pneumonia had worse outcomes with significantly increased in-hospital mortality, prolonged hospitalization, prolonged ICU stay, and increased postoperative re-intubation. Clinicians should therefore minimize delays in surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to pathogenic organisms. Also, timely liberation from mechanical ventilation after surgery should be encouraged.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xin Xi ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Wei-Guo Ma ◽  
Jiang Xie ◽  
Yong-Min Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Although obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is prevalent among patients with aortic dissection, its prognostic impact is not yet determined in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. We aimed to investigate the association of OSA with hypoxaemia and with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay after type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. Methods This retrospective study continuously enrolled 83 patients who underwent TAAD repair from January 1 to December 31, 2018. OSA was diagnosed by sleep test and defined as an apnoea hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥ 15/h, while an AHI of > 30/h was defined severe OSA. Hypoxaemia was defined as an oxygenation index (OI) of < 200 mmHg. Prolonged ICU stay referred to an ICU stay of > 72 h. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of postoperative OI for prolonged ICU stay. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association of OSA with hypoxaemia and prolonged ICU stay. Results A total of 41 (49.4%) patients were diagnosed with OSA using the sleep test. Hypoxaemia occurred postoperatively in 56 patients (67.5%). Postoperatively hypoxaemia developed mostly in patients with OSA (52.4% vs. 83.0%, p = 0.003), and particularly in those with severe OSA (52.4% vs. 90.5%, p = 0.003). The postoperative OI could fairly predict a prolonged ICU stay (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.72; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.60–0.84; p = 0.002). Severe OSA was associated with both postoperative hypoxaemia (odds ratio [OR] 6.65; 95% CI 1.56–46.26, p = 0.008) and prolonged ICU stay (OR 5.58; 95% CI 1.54–20.24, p = 0.009). Conclusions OSA was common in patients with TAAD. Severe OSA was associated with postoperative hypoxaemia and prolonged ICU stay following TAAD repair.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Oriana Belli ◽  
Maddalena Ardissino ◽  
Maurizio Bottiroli ◽  
Francesco Soriano ◽  
Calogero Blanda ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiovascular complications of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) are known to be associated with poor outcome. A small number of case series and reports have described cases of myocarditis and ischaemic events, however, knowledge on the aetiology of acute cardiac failure in SARS-CoV2 remains limited. We describe the occurrence and risk stratification imaging correlates of ‘takotsubo’ stress cardiomyopathy presenting in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. Case summary An intubated 53-year old patient with COVID19 suffered acute haemodynamic collapse in the intensive care unit, and was thus investigated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial troponins and blood tests, and eventually coronary angiography due to clinical suspicion of ischaemic aetiology. Echocardiography revealed a reduced ejection fraction, with evident extensive apical akinesia spanning multiple coronary territories. Troponins and NT-proBNP were elevated, and ECG revealed ST elevation: coronary angiography was thus performed. This revealed no significant coronary stenosis. Repeat echocardiography performed within the following week revealed a substantial recovery of ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities. Despite requirement of a prolonged ICU stay, the patient now remains clinically stable, and is on spontaneous breathing. Conclusion This case report presents a case of takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy occurring in a critically unwell patient with COVID19 in the intensive care setting. Stress cardiomyopathy may be an acute cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 infection. In the COVID19 critical care setting, urgent bedside echocardiography is an important tool for initial clinical assessment of patients suffering haemodynamic compromise.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Anne-Françoise Rousseau ◽  
Pauline Minguet ◽  
Camille Colson ◽  
Isabelle Kellens ◽  
Sourour Chaabane ◽  

Abstract Purpose Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) required critical care. Mid-term outcomes of the survivors need to be assessed. The objective of this single-center cohort study was to describe their physical, cognitive, psychological, and biological outcomes at 3 months following intensive care unit (ICU)-discharge (M3). Patients and methods All COVID-19 adults who survived an ICU stay ≥ 7 days and attended the M3 consultation at our multidisciplinary follow-up clinic were involved. They benefited from a standardized assessment, addressing health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), sleep disorders (PSQI), and the three principal components of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS): physical status (Barthel index, handgrip and quadriceps strength), mental health disorders (HADS and IES-R), and cognitive impairment (MoCA). Biological parameters referred to C-reactive protein and creatinine. Results Among the 92 patients admitted to our ICU for COVID-19, 42 survived a prolonged ICU stay and 32 (80%) attended the M3 follow-up visit. Their median age was 62 [49–68] years, 72% were male, and nearly half received inpatient rehabilitation following ICU discharge. At M3, 87.5% (28/32) had not regained their baseline level of daily activities. Only 6.2% (2/32) fully recovered, and had normal scores for the three MoCA, IES-R and Barthel scores. The main observed disorders were PSQI > 5 (75%, 24/32), MoCA < 26 (44%, 14/32), Barthel < 100 (31%, 10/32) and IES-R ≥ 33 (28%, 9/32). Combined disorders were observed in 13/32 (40.6%) of the patients. The EQ-5D-3L visual scale was rated at 71 [61–80]. A quarter of patients (8/32) demonstrated a persistent inflammation based on CRP blood level (9.3 [6.8–17.7] mg/L). Conclusion The burden of severe COVID-19 and prolonged ICU stay was considerable in the present cohort after 3 months, affecting both functional status and biological parameters. These data are an argument on the need for closed follow-up for critically ill COVID-19 survivors.

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