surgically induced
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 712-716
S K Prabhakar ◽  
Oshin Middha ◽  
Feba Mary George ◽  
Uditi Pankaj Kothak ◽  
Prashansa Yadav

Study of steepening, flattening, clockwise, and counter-clockwise torque effect is indispensable to understand and design surgical induced astigmatism calculator. Hence, in this study by constructing a novel Microsoft Office Excel 2007 based astigmatic calculator following cataract surgery, analysis on the accuracy and predictability evaluated for the performance. Post-cataract surgery patients from May 2019 to January 2020 at a tertiary medical institution recruited for this present study. Based on Pythagoras principle, MS Excel calculator designed and the law of cousins for calculating the vector magnitude and axis respectively. Manual keratometry measurements for pre and postoperative horizontal (Kh) and vertical (Kv) curvatures established, and statistical analysis for the resultant SIA magnitude and axis deduced with Medcalc software comparing with the existing SIA 2.1 version calculator. A total of 29 eyes of 25 patients studied with a mean age of 62.55 (±8.08) years, males contributing to 14 (56%), and right laterally in 17 (58%) eyes. MS Excel and SIA 2.1 versions calculated a mean SIA magnitude of 0.66 (±0.47) D and 0.64 (±0.55) D respectively. Pearson coefficient correlation (r=-0.16, p=0.40), paired-two sample test (t value= 0.11, p= 0.91) and ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.75, p= 0.34, 95% CI= 0.25 to 0.99) calculated. Regression equation (y = 0.75 + -0.14 x) and limits of agreements (95% CI -0.29 to 0.31) analyzed, and, 95% of data points distributed within ±1.96 SD of the line of equality on Bland-Altman difference plots.The present calculator proclaimed an acceptable accuracy and agreement with a prediction of 0.61 Diopter for every unit change in the magnitude of SIA 2.1 software in addition to consideration of interchangeability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 240
Wakako Ando ◽  
Kazutaka Kamiya ◽  
Masayuki Kasahara ◽  
Nobuyuki Shoji

This study aimed to investigate the arithmetic mean of surgically induced astigmatism (M-SIA) and the centroid of surgically induced astigmatism (C-SIA) after standard trabeculectomy. We comprised 185 eyes of 143 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 67.7 ± 11.6 years) who underwent trabeculectomy and completed at least a 3-month routine follow-up. In all cases, the scleral flap was made at the nasal-superior location. Corneal astigmatism was measured with an automated keratometer. We calculated the M-SIA and the C-SIA using vector analysis and applied the astigmatism double angle plot. The magnitude of corneal astigmatism increased significantly, from 1.17 ± 0.92 D preoperatively to 1.77 ± 1.05 D postoperatively (paired t-test, p < 0.001). The M-SIA was 1.12 ± 0.55 D, and the C-SIA was 0.73 D @64° ± 1.02 D in the right eye group, and the M-SIA was 1.08 ± 0.48 D and the C-SIA was 0.60 D @117° ± 1.03 D in the left eye group. The C-SIA showed an astigmatic shift toward the nasal-superior location of the scleral flap creation. Our results revealed that trabeculectomy induced the SIA in the direction of the scleral flap location and that the C-SIA was much lower than the M-SIA in eyes undergoing trabeculectomy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (12) ◽  
pp. 1592-1599
Joon Kyo Chung ◽  
Gyu Le Han ◽  
Hoon Noh ◽  
Dong Hui Lim ◽  
Tae-Young Chung

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare corneal astigmatism correction between “wound open” and “wound intact” methods during femtosecond laser-assisted transepithelial arcuate keratotomy.Methods: From April 2016 to December 2018, a retrospective survey was conducted on patients undergoing femtosecond laser cataract surgery at the Ophthalmology Department of Samsung Medical Center. Size comparison and vector analysis of corneal astigmatism before and after surgery were performed in the wound open and wound intact groups.Results: In the wound open and wound intact groups, the target-induced astigmatism (TIA) was 1.28 ± 0.55; and 1.26 ± 0.29 diopters, the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was 0.80 ± 0.52; and 0.53 ± 0.32 diopters, and the correction index (CI) was 0.63 ± 0.28; and 0.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The astigmatism correction was superior in the wound open group (p = 0.048, p = 0.025). In a subgroup with TIA < 1.2 diopters, there were no significant differences in SIA or CI between the two groups; however, in the subgroup with a TIA > 1.2 diopters, the SIA was 1.09 ± 0.59; and 0.54 ± 0.37 diopters and the CI was 0.60 ± 0.28; and 0.36 ± 0.23 in the wound open and wound intact groups, respectively (p = 0.022, p = 0.047). Thus, astigmatism correction was superior in the wound open group.Conclusions: The wound open method during femtosecond laser-assisted transepithelial arcuate keratotomy was superior for astigmatism correction compared to the wound intact method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Abduallah Elsayed ◽  
Jeffery Nielsen ◽  
Natalie Taylor ◽  
Mohammed Juboori ◽  
Caio de Andrade Staut ◽  

Non-union bone fracture occurs in 5-10% of fracture injuries. Interventions include surgery with local implantation of autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, and/or bone morphogenetic proteins. These types of fracture injuries are also accompanied by acute and chronic pain states. In most instances, opioids are provided to injured patients during and after surgery. With the opioid crisis, identifying new analgesic therapies that could reduce or eliminate opioid use, while also improving bone healing is important. Here we show the ability of a novel compound, MAK123, to both enhance bone healing and reduce pain behavior in a surgically induced femoral fracture mouse model. Briefly, 20 male C57BL/6 mice underwent a surgically induced femoral fracture and then were treated with 0, 2, 6, or 20 mg/kg, 3X/week for the 3 week study duration. Weekly X-rays were used to examine healing progression. Prior to euthanasia, mice underwent behavioral testing to measure evoked pain behaviors. Upon euthanasia, ex vivo µCT imaging and analysis was completed to assess fracture callus size and composition. While all doses of MAK123 tested resulted in improved healing, the 6mg/kg dose resulted in accelerated bone healing and a significant increase in mineralized callus volume (p<0.05). Similarly, while all doses of MAK123 reduced evoked responses to tactile stimulus as demonstrated by increased paw withdrawal thresholds, 6 mg/kg of MAK123 resulted in a more robust and significant improvement (p<0.05). We postulate that optimization of the dosing schedule/concentration could further improve both bone healing and behavioral measures thought to represent pain in rodents. That said, these promising pre-clinical data warrant further evaluation as MAK123 may prove to be a unique tool for orthopaedic surgery usage whereby it could both improve bone healing and reduce clinical pain, improving overall patient outcomes.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1131-1136
Eman Azmy ◽  
Mona Denewar ◽  
Rehab R. El-Zehary ◽  
Fatma M. Ibrahim ◽  

The ultimate goal of tongue reconstruction is restoring the tongue integrity while preserve its critical functions(i.e., articulation, mastication, and deglutition) and minimize the morbidity profile of a selected reconstructive technique. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) used in tissue engineering became a therapeutic selectiondue to numerous advantagesas regeneration of damaged tissues withhigh quality without the formation of fibrous tissue, minimal donor site morbidity in comparison withautografts and a low risk ofdisease transmition and autoimmune rejection. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) areexpandable stem, self-renewing,embedded at the site of injury and motivate tissue regeneration and wound healing. In oral wounds, they revealgreater re-epithelialization, intracellular matrix formation,cellularity, and neoangiogenesis, thusspeed up wound healing.Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) application in medical fields is growingdue to the chemical and physical properties like biocompatibility, optical properties,facile surface modification and stability.GNP usage in regenerative medicine is safe if the implanted tissue is replacing a tissue/organresectedbecause of tumor.

2021 ◽  
Kosei Nagata ◽  
Hironori Hojo ◽  
Song Ho Chang ◽  
Hiroyuki Okada ◽  
Fumiko Yano ◽  

Abstract The Runt-related transcription factor (Runx) family plays various roles in the homeostasis of cartilage. Here, we examined the role of Runx2 and Runx3 for osteoarthritis (OA) development in vivo and in vitro. Runx3 knockout mice accelerated OA by surgical induction, accompanied with decreased expression of lubricin and aggrecan. Meanwhile, Runx2 conditional knockout mice showed biphasic phenotypes; OA was inhibited by hetero-knockout accompanied with decreased matrix metallopeptidase 13 (Mmp13) expression, but accelerated in homo-knockout of Runx2 accompanied with reduction of type II collagen (Col2a1) expression. Comprehensive transcriptional analyses revealed lubricin and aggrecan as transcriptional target genes of Runx3, and indicated that Runx2 sustained Col2a1 expression through an intron 6 enhancer when Sox9 was decreased. Intra-articular administration of Runx3 adenovirus ameliorated development of surgically induced OA. Runx3 protects adult articular cartilage through extracellular matrix protein production under the normal condition, while Runx2 exerts both catabolic and anabolic effects under the inflammatory condition.

2021 ◽  
Tatiana Onofre ◽  
Nicole Oliver ◽  
Renata Carlos ◽  
Davi Fialho ◽  
Renata C. Corte ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110593
Maja Bohac ◽  
Alma Biscevic ◽  
Violeta Shijakova ◽  
Ivan Gabric ◽  
Kresimir Gabric ◽  

Purpose To compare changes in astigmatism by refraction and total corneal astigmatism after tPRK, LASIK and FsLASIK. Setting Specialty Eye Hospital Svjetlost, Zagreb, Croatia. Design Partially masked, semi-randomized, prospective, case-by-case, interventional, clinical study. Methods Patients with a stable refraction (-0.75DS to −8.00DS, astigmatism ≤1.00DC) underwent tPRK, LASIK or FsLASIK without complication. Astigmatism was measured at both corneal surfaces over the central 3.2 mm zone (approximately using Pentacam HRTM) preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Pentacam and refraction data were subjected to vector analysis to calculate the surgically induced changes in i) total corneal astigmatism (SIATCA) ii) any astigmatism by refraction (SIAR) and the vectorial difference (DV) between SIATCA and SIAR. Results Reporting key findings (p < .01), there was a significant difference between mean SIATCA and SIAR powers after tPRK (75eyes) but not after LASIK (100eyes) or FsLASIK (100eyes). Mean (±sd,95% CIs) values for DV powers were, tPRK −1.13DC(±0.71, −1.29 to −0.97), LASIK −0.39DC(±0.23,-0.44 to −0.34), FsLASIK −0.55DC(±0.38,-0.62 to −0.47). The differences were significant. For the tPRK and FsLASIK cases, linear regression revealed significant associations between I) SIATCA (x) &DV (z) powers (tPRK z = 1.586x-0.179, r  =  0.767, p < .01; FsLASIK z  =  0.442x-0.303, r  =  .484,p < .01), II) sines of SIATCA (x1) &DV (z1) axes (tPRK, z1 = 0.523 × 1 + 0.394, r = .650,p < .01; FsLASIK z1 = 0.460 × 1-0.308, r = .465,p < .01). Conclusions tPRK is more prone to unintended changes in astigmatism. The difference between SIATCA & SIAR after tPRK or FsLASIK is mediated by SIATCA. Photoablating deeper regions of the cornea reduces the gap between SIATCA & SIAR.

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