material design
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2022 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 104186
Hui Ji ◽  
Shubao Shao ◽  
Kaiyuan Liu ◽  
Tonghui Wu ◽  
Shengping Shen ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 628
Yinlong Zhu ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Kaimei Chu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Zhiqiang Hu ◽  

Flexible sensing tends to be widely exploited in the process of human–computer interactions of intelligent robots for its contact compliance and environmental adaptability. A novel flexible capacitive tactile sensor was proposed for multi-directional force sensing, which is based on carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite dielectric layer and upper and lower electrodes of carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (CNTs/PDMS) composite layer. By changing the ratio of carbon black, the dielectric constant of carbon black/PDMS composite layer increases at 4 wt%, and then decreases, which was explained according to the percolation theory of the conductive particles in the polymer matrix. Mathematical model of force and capacitance variance was established, which can be used to predict the value of the applied force. Then, the prototype with carbon black/PDMS composite dielectric layer was fabricated and characterized. SEM observation was conducted and a ratio was introduced in the composites material design. It was concluded that the dielectric constant of carbon sensor can reach 0.1 N within 50 N in normal direction and 0.2 N in 0–10 N in tangential direction with good stability. Finally, the multi-directional force results were obtained. Compared with the individual directional force results, the output capacitance value of multi-directional force was lower, which indicated the amplitude decrease in capacity change in the normal and tangential direction. This might be caused by the deformation distribution in the normal and tangential direction under multi-directional force.

Tomoe Otsuka ◽  
Yusa Muroya ◽  
Takuya Ikeda ◽  
Yoshitaka Komuro ◽  
Daisuke Kawana ◽  

Abstract Metal oxide nanocluster resists have recently attracted considerable attention for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. To obtain sophisticated guidelines for material design, it is necessary to understand well the radiation-induced chemical reaction scheme including the insolubilization mechanism. In this study, the production of CO2, which is considered to be one of the end products of treatment with an ionizing radiation, was investigated for eight types of carboxylic acid under various conditions using -rays (60Co) as a radiation source. The amount of CO2 produced was measured by gas chromatography (GC). GCO2 (/100 eV), which indicates decarboxylation efficiency, was evaluated. CO2 was generated through electron addition, hole transfer, and hydroxyl radical addition to the molecular and ionic forms of carboxylic acids. The dependences of GCO2 on reaction partners were clarified. The dependences of GCO2 on the molecular structure and dissociative state of carboxylic acids were also clarified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiangfei Sun ◽  
Kunfeng Chen ◽  
Feng Liang ◽  
Chunyi Zhi ◽  
Dongfeng Xue

The rapid development of portable, wearable, and implantable electronic devices greatly stimulated the urgent demand for modern society for multifunctional and miniaturized electrochemical energy storage devices and their integrated microsystems. This article reviews material design and manufacturing technology in different micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) along with devices integrate to achieve the targets of their various applications in recent years. Finally, We also critically prospect the future development directions and challenges of MSCs.

Gerrit J Jordaan ◽  
Wynand J vdM Steyn

The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.

Fabian Kappe ◽  
Luca Schadow ◽  
Mathias Bobbert ◽  
Gerson Meschut

A frequently used mechanical joining process that enables the joining of dissimilar materials is self-piercing riveting. Nevertheless, the increasing number of materials as well as material–thickness combinations leads to the need for a large number of rivet–die combinations as the rigid tool systems are not able to react to changing boundary conditions. Therefore, tool changes or system conversions are needed, resulting in longer process times and inflexibility of the joining processes. In this investigation, the flexibility of the self-piercing riveting process by reducing the required tool–geometry combinations is examined. For this purpose, various joints consisting of similar as well as dissimilar materials with different material thickness are sampled and analysed. Subsequently, a cluster algorithm is used to reduce the number of rivet–die combinations required. Finally, the effect of the changed tool geometries on both the joint formation and the joint load-bearing capacity is investigated. The investigation showed that a reduction by 55% of the required rivet–die combinations was possible. In particular, the rivet length influences the joint formation and the joint load-bearing capacity. An exclusive change of the die (e.g. die depth or die diameter) did not show a significant influence on these parameters.

Norbert Német ◽  
Ylenia Miele ◽  
Gábor Shuszter ◽  
Eszter L. Tóth ◽  
János Endre Maróti ◽  

AbstractIn the past decade, much effort has been devoted to using chemical clock-type reactions in material design and driving the self-assembly of various building blocks. Urea-urease enzymatic reaction has chemical pH clock behavior in an unbuffered medium, in which the induction time and the final pH can be programmed by the concentrations of the reagents. The urea-urease reaction can offer a new alternative in material synthesis, where the pH and its course in time are crucial factors in the synthesis. However, before using it in any synthesis method, it is important to investigate the possible effects of the reagents on the enzymatic reaction. Here we investigate the effect of the reagents of the zeolite imidazole framework-8 (zinc ions and 2-methylimidazole) on the urea-urease reaction. We have chosen the zeolite imidazole framework-8 because its formation serves as a model reaction for the formation of other metal–organic frameworks. We found that, besides the inhibition effect of the zinc ions which is well-known in the literature, 2-methylimidazole inhibits the enzymatic reaction as well. In addition to the observed inhibition effect, we report the formation of a hybrid urease-zinc-2-methylimidazole hybrid material. To support the inhibition effect, we developed a kinetic model which reproduced qualitatively the experimentally observed kinetic curves.

Jebasingh Bhagavathsingh ◽  
Ramesh Pugulanthi ◽  
Parimala Devi ◽  
Abiram Angamuthu ◽  
Doondi Kumar Janapala ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Yajie Li ◽  
Yongjian Zheng ◽  
Kai Guo ◽  
Jingtai Zhao ◽  
Chilin Li

It is imperative for the development of cost-effective and high-performance batteries. Currently, lithium-ion batteries still occupy most of the market. However, limited lithium (Li) resource and energy density retard their further development. The magnesium (Mg) metal has several significant advantages; those make it a viable alternative to Li as anode, including high volume specific capacity and dendrite-free plating during cycling and high abundance. The Mg-Li hybrid batteries can combine the advantages of Li ion and Mg metal to achieve fast electrode kinetics and smooth anode deposition morphology. This review summarizes recent progresses in cathode material design and anode interface modification for Mg-Li hybrid batteries. We aim to illustrate the contribution of Li+ to the electrochemical performance improvement at both cathode and anode sides and to provide inspiration for the future research in this field.

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