indium tin oxide
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2022 ◽  
Vol 248 ◽  
pp. 117165
Ting Liu ◽  
Wenxiao Zhang ◽  
Xiaoyu Zhai ◽  
Yunqian Ma ◽  
Yujie Chen ◽  

Nanophotonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Mateusz Śmietana ◽  
Bartosz Janaszek ◽  
Katarzyna Lechowicz ◽  
Petr Sezemsky ◽  
Marcin Koba ◽  

Abstract Sensitivity, selectivity, reliability, and measurement range of a sensor are vital parameters for its wide applications. Fast growing number of various detection systems seems to justify worldwide efforts to enhance one or some of the parameters. Therefore, as one of the possible solutions, multi-domain sensing schemes have been proposed. This means that the sensor is interrogated simultaneously in, e.g., optical and electrochemical domains. An opportunity to combine the domains within a single sensor is given by optically transparent and electrochemically active transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), such as indium tin oxide (ITO). This work aims to bring understanding of electro-optically modulated lossy-mode resonance (LMR) effect observed for ITO-coated optical fiber sensors. Experimental research supported by numerical modeling allowed for identification of the film properties responsible for performance in both domains, as well as interactions between them. It has been found that charge carrier density in the semiconducting ITO determines the efficiency of the electrochemical processes and the LMR properties. The carrier density boosts electrochemical activity but reduces capability of electro-optical modulation of the LMR. It has also been shown that the carrier density can be tuned by pressure during magnetron sputtering of ITO target. Thus, the pressure can be chosen as a parameter for optimization of electro-optical modulation of the LMR, as well as optical and electrochemical responses of the device, especially when it comes to label-free sensing and biosensing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Parviz Saeidi ◽  
Bernhard Jakoby ◽  
Gerald Pühringer ◽  
Andreas Tortschanoff ◽  
Gerald Stocker ◽  

Abstract. Plasmonic waveguides have attracted much attention owing to the associated high field intensity at the metal–dielectric interface and their ability to confine the modes at the nanometer scale. At the same time, they suffer from relatively high propagation loss, which is due to the presence of metal. Several alternative materials have been introduced to replace noble metals, such as transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). A particularly popular TCO is indium tin oxide (ITO), which is compatible with standard microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. In this work, the feasibility of ITO as an alternative plasmonic material is investigated for infrared absorption sensing applications: we numerically design and optimize an ITO-based plasmonic slot waveguide for a wavelength of 4.26 µm, which is the absorption line of CO2. Our optimization is based on a figure of merit (FOM), which is defined as the confinement factor divided by the imaginary part of the effective mode index (i.e., the intrinsic damping of the mode). The obtained optimal FOM is 3.2, which corresponds to 9 µm and 49 % for the propagation length (characterizing the intrinsic damping) and the confinement factor, respectively.

Mingjuan Huang ◽  
Chunhong Zhou ◽  
Ruiting Wen ◽  
Jiuying Tian ◽  
Wenduo Huang ◽  

Abstract Environmental pollution and new energy development have become topics of increasing concern. Herein, a visible-light-driven photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) with double photoelectrodes was constructed for simultaneous electricity generation and pollutant degradation, in which graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) generated on W/WO3 nanorod arrays (W/WNR/g-C3N4) was used as the photoanode and Fe3+-doped CuBi2O4 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass (ITO/CBFeO) was used as the photocathode. The experimental results showed that the WO3/g-C3N4 Z-scheme structure and one-dimensional WNR rod-like structure could effectively suppress the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers and enable W/WNR/g-C3N4 to present a good photocurrent response under visible light irradiation. The Fermi level mismatch between the W/WNR/g-C3N4 photoanode and ITO/CBFeO photocathode could improve the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the photoanode to the photocathode across the external circuit, enabling the constructed PFC to afford high electricity output and good efficiency for pollutant degradation. The short-circuit current density and maximum power density could reach 620 μA cm−2 and 110 μW cm−2, respectively, while the degradation ratio of oxytetracycline reached 97.6% in 90 min. Therefore, the proposed PFC system provides a new way to generate electric energy and degrade pollutants simultaneously.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 297
Chia-Yi Huang ◽  
Shih-Hung Lin

A diffraction grating of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) with polarization-selective characteristics is investigated. Electrically controllable gratings are produced using In-Plane Switching (IPS) electrodes. Indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with a stripe pattern are used to generate a horizontal electric field parallel to the substrate on a single glass substrate. It is known from the experimental results that the number of diffraction orders can be controlled by applied voltage. Except for the zeroth order, the consistently highest intensity can be obtained for every other order of diffraction, and the polarization direction of the diffraction is perpendicular to the direction of the electrode stripes. The polarization direction of the zeroth order diffraction is parallel to the direction of the electrode stripes. Therefore, it can be used as a filter for light polarization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 198-203
Timur O. Zinchenko ◽  
Ekaterina A. Pecherskaya ◽  
Vladimir V. Antipenko ◽  
Artem V. Volik ◽  
Yuriy A. Varenik ◽  

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are widely used as a transparent electrode in various fields of opto-and semiconductor electronics. The main materials used today are indium-tin oxide, tin-antimony oxide and zinc-aluminum oxide. The authors have developed and improved the spray-pyrolysis method, which is one of the most promising methods of implementation in production. In this work, the study of tin dioxide doped with antimony coatings and the development of a methodology for the controlled synthesis of TCO, taking into account the effect of technological modes of deposition on the TCO parameters. The results of the performed studies contribute to the development of an automated technology for the synthesis of transparent conducting oxides with desired properties.

Xingzhen Yan ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Kaian Song ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Yanjie Wang ◽  

Abstract We have prepared an ultra-thin flexible transparent conductive electrode with high folding endurance composed of randomly arranged silver nanowires (AgNWs) embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A simple preparation method was performed to connect a glass substrate coated with a AgNW network and a glass substrate coated with PDMS. The glass substrate was then removed after the PDMS solidified, and the AgNW–PDMS composite film was peeled off. Moreover, the problem of the high contact resistance caused by the random arrangement of AgNWs was solved by the local joule heat generated by applying voltage to both sides of the AgNW–PDMS composite structure to weld the overlapping AgNWs. The sheet resistance (Rs ) of AgNW–PDMS composite films with different AgNW deposition concentrations decreased by 46.4%–75.8% through this electro-sintering treatment. The embedded structure of the AgNW–PDMS composite ensures better voltage resistance and environmental stability under high temperature and humidity conditions compared with a AgNW network attached to a glass substrate. Additionally, the substrate-free, excellent elasticity and high resilience characteristics resulted in the Rs value of the same composite electrode only increasing by 2.9 ohm/sq after folding four times. The advantage of the metal thermal conductivity makes the joule heat generated by electric injection rapidly diffuse and dissipate in the AgNW-based transparent heater with faster response time and smaller voltage drive than indium tin oxide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Edigar Muchuweni ◽  
Edwin T. Mombeshora ◽  
Bice S. Martincigh ◽  
Vincent O. Nyamori

In recent years, carbon-based materials, particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have gained intensive research attention in the fabrication of organic solar cells (OSCs) due to their outstanding physicochemical properties, low-cost, environmental friendliness and the natural abundance of carbon. In this regard, the low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance of CNTs enables their application as alternative anodes to the widely used indium tin oxide (ITO), which is toxic, expensive and scarce. Also, the synergy between the large specific surface area and high electrical conductivity of CNTs provides both large donor-acceptor interfaces and conductive interpenetrating networks for exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport. Furthermore, the facile tunability of the energy levels of CNTs provides proper energy level alignment between the active layer and electrodes for effective extraction and transportation of charge carriers. In addition, the hydrophobic nature and high thermal conductivity of CNTs enables them to form protective layers that improve the moisture and thermal stability of OSCs, thereby prolonging the devices’ lifetime. Recently, the introduction of CNTs into OSCs produced a substantial increase in efficiency from ∼0.68 to above 14.00%. Thus, further optimization of the optoelectronic properties of CNTs can conceivably help OSCs to compete with silicon solar cells that have been commercialized. Therefore, this study presents the recent breakthroughs in efficiency and stability of OSCs, achieved mainly over 2018–2021 by incorporating CNTs into electrodes, active layers and charge transport layers. The challenges, advantages and recommendations for the fabrication of low-cost, highly efficient and sustainable next-generation OSCs are also discussed, to open up avenues for commercialization.

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