Genetic Engineering
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 7956
Manjulatha Mekapogu ◽  
Jae-A Jung ◽  
Oh-Keun Kwon ◽  
Myung-Suk Ahn ◽  
Hyun-Young Song ◽  

Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 3712
Julien Boetto ◽  
Matthieu Peyre ◽  
Michel Kalamarides

Meningiomas are the most frequent primitive central nervous system tumors found in adults. Mouse models of cancer have been instrumental in understanding disease mechanisms and establishing preclinical drug testing. Various mouse models of meningioma have been developed over time, evolving in light of new discoveries in our comprehension of meningioma biology and with improvements in genetic engineering techniques. We reviewed all mouse models of meningioma described in the literature, including xenograft models (orthotopic or heterotopic) with human cell lines or patient derived tumors, and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). Xenograft models provided useful tools for preclinical testing of a huge range of innovative drugs and therapeutic options, which are summarized in this review. GEMMs offer the possibility of mimicking human meningiomas at the histological, anatomical, and genetic level and have been invaluable in enabling tumorigenesis mechanisms, including initiation and progression, to be dissected. Currently, researchers have a range of different mouse models that can be used depending on the scientific question to be answered.

Arinze S. Okoli ◽  
Torill Blix ◽  
Anne I. Myhr ◽  
Wenteng Xu ◽  
Xiaodong Xu

AbstractAquaculture is becoming the primary source of seafood for human diets, and farmed fish aquaculture is one of its fastest growing sectors. The industry currently faces several challenges including infectious and parasitic diseases, reduced viability, fertility reduction, slow growth, escapee fish and environmental pollution. The commercialization of the growth-enhanced AquAdvantage salmon and the CRISPR/Cas9-developed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proffers genetic engineering and genome editing tools, e.g. CRISPR/Cas, as potential solutions to these challenges. Future traits being developed in different fish species include disease resistance, sterility, and enhanced growth. Despite these notable advances, off-target effect and non-clarification of trait-related genes among other technical challenges hinder full realization of CRISPR/Cas potentials in fish breeding. In addition, current regulatory and risk assessment frameworks are not fit-for purpose regarding the challenges of CRISPR/Cas notwithstanding that public and regulatory acceptance are key to commercialization of products of the new technology. In this study, we discuss how CRISPR/Cas can be used to overcome some of these limitations focusing on diseases and environmental release in farmed fish aquaculture. We further present technical limitations, regulatory and risk assessment challenges of the use of CRISPR/Cas, and proffer research strategies that will provide much-needed data for regulatory decisions, risk assessments, increased public awareness and sustainable applications of CRISPR/Cas in fish aquaculture with emphasis on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) breeding.

2021 ◽  
Christopher Tonnu Jackson ◽  
Jeffrey W. Wang ◽  
Eduardo González-Grandío ◽  
Natalie S. Goh ◽  
Jaewan Mun ◽  

Nanomaterials have emerged as an invaluable tool for the delivery of biomolecules such as DNA and RNA, with various applications in genetic engineering and post-transcriptional genetic manipulation. Alongside this development, there has been an increasing use of polymer-based techniques, such as polyethyleneimine (PEI), to electrostatically load polynucleotide cargoes onto nanomaterial carriers. However, there remains a need to assess nanomaterial properties, conjugation conditions, and biocompatibility of these nanomaterial-polymer constructs, particularly for use in plant systems. In this work, we develop mechanisms to optimize DNA loading on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a library of polymer-SWNT constructs and assess DNA loading ability, polydispersity, and both chemical and colloidal stability. Counterintuitively, we demonstrate that polymer hydrolysis from nanomaterial surfaces can occur depending on polymer properties and attachment chemistries, and describe mitigation strategies against construct degradation. Given the growing interest in delivery applications in plant systems, we also assess the toxicity of polymer-based nanomaterials in plants and provide recommendations for future design of nanomaterial-based polynucleotide delivery strategies.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1072
Raquel Cid ◽  
Jorge Bolívar

To date, vaccination has become one of the most effective strategies to control and reduce infectious diseases, preventing millions of deaths worldwide. The earliest vaccines were developed as live-attenuated or inactivated pathogens, and, although they still represent the most extended human vaccine types, they also face some issues, such as the potential to revert to a pathogenic form of live-attenuated formulations or the weaker immune response associated with inactivated vaccines. Advances in genetic engineering have enabled improvements in vaccine design and strategies, such as recombinant subunit vaccines, have emerged, expanding the number of diseases that can be prevented. Moreover, antigen display systems such as VLPs or those designed by nanotechnology have improved the efficacy of subunit vaccines. Platforms for the production of recombinant vaccines have also evolved from the first hosts, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to insect or mammalian cells. Traditional bacterial and yeast systems have been improved by engineering and new systems based on plants or insect larvae have emerged as alternative, low-cost platforms. Vaccine development is still time-consuming and costly, and alternative systems that can offer cost-effective and faster processes are demanding to address infectious diseases that still do not have a treatment and to face possible future pandemics.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4403
Yunkang Chang ◽  
Dandan Yang ◽  
Rui Li ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Yimin Zhu

Wastewater emissions from textile factories cause serious environmental problems. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is an oxidoreductase with ligninolytic activity and is a promising biocatalyst for the biodegradation of hazardous environmental contaminants, and especially for dye wastewater decolorization. This article first summarizes the origin, crystal structure, and catalytic cycle of MnP, and then reviews the recent literature on its application to dye wastewater decolorization. In addition, the application of new technologies such as enzyme immobilization and genetic engineering that could improve the stability, durability, adaptability, and operating costs of the enzyme are highlighted. Finally, we discuss and propose future strategies to improve the performance of MnP-assisted dye decolorization in industrial applications.

2021 ◽  
Xuechun Feng ◽  
Lukas Kambic ◽  
Jared H.K. Nishimoto ◽  
Floyd A. Reed ◽  
Jai A. Denton ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 012-021
Luka Yelwa Barde ◽  
Hussaini Adamu ◽  
Grace Ifemedike Uzoma ◽  
Mohammed Bello ◽  
Mohammed Abba Danjuma

Advances in biotechnology has been the subject of praise for a decade now, this is due to techniques such as gene expression which has contributed immensely in the success of genetic engineering, medical advancement, vaccine production and agriculture. Gene expression has become a very important tool for the overall improvement of quality of life. This paper tries to look into the development of gene expression in the last forty years and to highlight how technological advancements in the study of gene expression brought about improvements as a focal point. Technological advancements associated with northern blotting, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosobent assays, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology with emphasis on quantitative PCR, differential protein display technique and DNA sequencing and hybridization arrays technology with emphasis on macroarrays and microarrays in facilitating gene expression will be discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Maria Lobato-Gómez ◽  
Seanna Hewitt ◽  
Teresa Capell ◽  
Paul Christou ◽  
Amit Dhingra ◽  

AbstractBreeding has been used successfully for many years in the fruit industry, giving rise to most of today’s commercial fruit cultivars. More recently, new molecular breeding techniques have addressed some of the constraints of conventional breeding. However, the development and commercial introduction of such novel fruits has been slow and limited with only five genetically engineered fruits currently produced as commercial varieties—virus-resistant papaya and squash were commercialized 25 years ago, whereas insect-resistant eggplant, non-browning apple, and pink-fleshed pineapple have been approved for commercialization within the last 6 years and production continues to increase every year. Advances in molecular genetics, particularly the new wave of genome editing technologies, provide opportunities to develop new fruit cultivars more rapidly. Our review, emphasizes the socioeconomic impact of current commercial fruit cultivars developed by genetic engineering and the potential impact of genome editing on the development of improved cultivars at an accelerated rate.

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