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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-68
Juraj Faragó

Increasing concerns for security of the fossil fuel supply emphasizes the need to complement fossil fuel-based energy sources with renewable energy sources. Plant biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials. This review summarizes the last advancements in the use of biotechnological tools to improve bioethanol production from plant biomass through genetic engineering the starch content and composition and lignocellulosic matter characteristics, and increasing the capacity of plants to produce harvestable yield and ameliorating the negative abiotic stresses on plants so as to increase yield.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Weiran Chu ◽  
Yi Shi ◽  
Liang Zhang

As non-renewable resource, the recovery and utilization of phosphorus from wastewater is an enduring topic. Stimulated by the advances in research on polyphosphates (polyP) as well as the development of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) technology to achieve the efficient accumulation of polyP via polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), a novel phosphorus removal strategy is considered with promising potential for application in real wastewater treatment processes. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of phosphorus aggregation in the form of polyP during the phosphate removal process. Further discussion about the reuse of polyP with different chain lengths is provided herein so as to suggest possible application pathways for this biosynthetic product.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Nurul Aini Puasa ◽  
Siti Aqlima Ahmad ◽  
Nur Nadhirah Zakaria ◽  
Khalilah Abdul Khalil ◽  
Siti Hajar Taufik ◽  

Oil pollution such as diesel poses a significant threat to the environment. Due to this, there is increasing interest in using natural materials mainly from agricultural waste as organic oil spill sorbents. Oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB), a cost-effective material, non-toxic, renewable resource, and abundantly available in Malaysia, contains cellulosic materials that have been proven to show a good result in pollution treatment. This study evaluated the optimum screening part of EFB that efficiently absorbs oil and the physicochemical characterisation of untreated and treated EFB fibre using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The treatment conditions were optimised using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), which identified optimal treatment conditions of 170 °C, 20 min, 0.1 g/cm3, and 10% diesel, resulting in 23 mL of oil absorbed. The predicted model was highly significant in statistical Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and confirmed that all the parameters (temperature, time, packing density, and diesel concentration) significantly influenced the oil absorbed. The predicted values in RSM were 175 °C, 22.5 min, 0.095 g/cm3, and 10%, which resulted in 24 mL of oil absorbed. Using the experimental values generated by RSM, 175 °C, 22.5 min, 0.095 g/cm3, and 10%, the highest oil absorption achieved was 24.33 mL. This study provides further evidence, as the data suggested that RSM provided a better approach to obtain a high efficiency of oil absorbed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nicolai D. Jablonowski ◽  
Markus Pauly ◽  
Murali Dama

Biomass from perennial plants can be considered a carbon-neutral renewable resource. The tall wheatgrass hybrid Szarvasi-1 (Agropyron elongatum, hereafter referred to as “Szarvasi”) belongs to the perennial Poaceae representing a species, which can grow on marginal soils and produce large amounts of biomass. Several conventional and advanced pretreatment methods have been developed to enhance the saccharification efficiency of plant biomass. Advanced pretreatment methods, such as microwave-assisted pretreatment methods are faster and use less energy compared to conventional pretreatment methods. In this study, we investigated the potential of Szarvasi biomass as a biorefinery feedstock. For this purpose, the lignocellulosic structure of Szarvasi biomass was investigated in detail. In addition, microwave-assisted pretreatments were applied to Szarvasi biomass using different reagents including weak acids and alkali. The produced pulp, hydrolysates, and extracted lignin were quantitatively characterized. In particular, the alkali pretreatment significantly enhanced the saccharification efficiency of the pulp 16-fold compared to untreated biomass of Szarvasi. The acid pretreatment directly converted 25% of the cellulose into glucose without the need of enzymatic digestion. In addition, based on lignin compositional and lignin linkage analysis a lignin chemical model structure present in Szarvasi biomass could be established.

Wenjie Zheng ◽  
Qianwen Wu ◽  
Wusong Xu ◽  
Qizhong Xiong ◽  
Yusef Kianpoor Kalkhajeh ◽  

The enrichment and separation of phosphorus-containing compounds from wastewater can prevent eutrophication and recycle non-renewable resource. Herein, we developed a recyclable functionalized polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANAF-Cl) capable of loading ionic liquid...

2022 ◽  
pp. 475-499
Deepti Sahasrabuddhe ◽  
Annesha Sengupta ◽  
Shinjinee Sengupta ◽  
Vivek Mishra ◽  
Pramod P. Wangikar

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Antonio Ferrandez-Garcia ◽  
Maria Teresa Ferrandez-Garcia ◽  
Teresa Garcia Ortuño ◽  
Francisco Mata-Cabrera ◽  
Manuel Ferrandez-Villena

While the construction industry consumes more raw materials than any other industrial sector, agriculture generates a large amount of waste that is not managed properly. The olive industry produces more than 7.5 million tons of waste that could be recovered. This paper presents a new method to valorize the leaves of olive tree pruning waste consisting of the manufacture of ecologic boards without adhesives by hot pressing. In order to analyze their influence, three manufacturing variables were varied to obtain the boards: leaf type (shredded and whole leaves), temperature (130, 140 and 150 °C) and time (4, and 12 min). Twenty-four boards were made and were then tested for their mechanical, physical and thermal properties according to the EN standards. The boards showed good results of thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and of thermal conductivity and can be used as an alternative for manufacturing thermal insulation boards. With a smaller particle size of shredded leaves, longer pressing times and higher pressing temperatures, the mechanical behavior of the boards could improve. The olive leaves are a low-cost renewable resource, and manufacturing products with a long, useful life can be beneficial to the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 388
Mourtadha Sarhan Sachit ◽  
Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri ◽  
Ahmad Fikri Abdullah ◽  
Azmin Shakrine Mohd Rafie

Considering the spatial–temporal variation of renewable energy (RE) resources, assessment of their complementarity is of great significance for decision-makers to increase the stability of power output and reduce the need for storage systems. In this regard, the current paper presents a roadmap to assess the temporal complementarity patterns between wind and solar resources for the first time in Iraq. A new approach based on re-analyzed climate data, Landcover products, and geographical information system (GIS) is proposed. As such, renewable resource datasets are collected for 759 locations with a daily timescale over five years. Landcover classes are translated into wind shear coefficients (WSCs) to model wind velocity at turbine hub height. Then, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) is applied to calculate the complementarity indices for each month of the year. Results of this investigation reveal that there are significant synergy patterns spanning more than six months in the southwestern regions and some eastern parts of Iraq. The highest complementarity is observed in March and December with a value of −0.70 and −0.63, respectively. Despite this promising potential, no typical temporal complementarity has been discovered that would completely eliminate the fluctuations of clean power generation. However, the synergistic properties yielded by this work could mitigate the reliance on storage systems, particularly as they cover important regions of the country. The proposed approach and tools can help improve the planning of renewable energy systems.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Khurram Shahzad ◽  
Mohammad Rehan ◽  
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid ◽  
Nadeem Ali ◽  
Ahmed Saleh Summan ◽  

High raw material prices and rivalry from the food industry have hampered the adoption of renewable resource-based goods. It has necessitated the investigation of cost-cutting strategies such as locating low-cost raw material supplies and adopting cleaner manufacturing processes. Exploiting waste streams as substitute resources for the operations is one low-cost option. The present study evaluates the environmental burden of biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production from slaughtering residues. The sustainability of the PHA production process will be assessed utilising the Emergy Accounting methodology. The effect of changing energy resources from business as usual (i.e., electricity mix from the grid and heat provision utilising natural gas) to different renewable energy resources is also evaluated. The emergy intensity for PHA production (seJ/g) shows a minor improvement ranging from 1.5% to 2% by changing only the electricity provision resources. This impact reaches up to 17% when electricity and heat provision resources are replaced with biomass resources. Similarly, the emergy intensity for PHA production using electricity EU27 mix, coal, hydropower, wind power, and biomass is about 5% to 7% lower than the emergy intensity of polyethylene high density (PE-HD). In comparison, its value is up to 21% lower for electricity and heat provision from biomass.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 29
Sebastian Sterl ◽  
Albertine Devillers ◽  
Celray James Chawanda ◽  
Ann van Griensven ◽  
Wim Thiery ◽  

The modelling of electricity systems with substantial shares of renewable resources, such as solar power, wind power and hydropower, requires datasets on renewable resource profiles with high spatiotemporal resolution to be made available to the energy modelling community. Whereas such resources exist for solar power and wind power profiles on diurnal and seasonal scales across all continents, this is not yet the case for hydropower. Here, we present a newly developed open-access African hydropower atlas, containing seasonal hydropower generation profiles for nearly all existing and several hundred future hydropower plants on the African continent. The atlas builds on continental-scale hydrological modelling in combination with detailed technical databases of hydropower plant characteristics and can facilitate modelling of power systems across Africa.

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