BMC Genomics
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2164, 1471-2164

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yunying Cao ◽  
Tingyu Shan ◽  
Hui Fang ◽  
Kangtai Sun ◽  
Wen Shi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Salt damage is an important abiotic stress that affects the growth and yield of maize worldwide. As an important member of the salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction pathway, the SOS3 gene family participates in the transmission of stress signals and plays a vital role in improving the salt tolerance of plants. Results In this study, we identified 59 SOS3 genes in the maize B73 genome using bioinformatics methods and genome-wide analyses. SOS3 proteins were divided into 5 different subfamilies according to the phylogenetic relationships. A close relationship between the phylogenetic classification and intron mode was observed, with most SOS3 genes in the same group sharing common motifs and similar exon-intron structures in the corresponding genes. These genes were unequally distributed on five chromosomes of B73. A total of six SOS3 genes were identified as repeated genes, and 12 pairs of genes were proven to be segmentally duplicated genes, indicating that gene duplication may play an important role in the expansion of the SOS3 gene family. The expression analysis of 10 genes that were randomly selected from different subgroups suggested that all 10 genes were significantly differentially expressed within 48 h after salt treatment, of which eight SOS3 genes showed a significant decline while Zm00001d025938 and Zm00001d049665 did not. By observing the subcellular localization results, we found that most genes were expressed in chloroplasts while some genes were expressed in the cell membrane and nucleus. Conclusions Our study provides valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship and functional characteristics of the SOS3 gene family and lays the foundation for further study of the SOS3 gene family in the maize B73 genome.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiaxin Fan ◽  
Mengying Chen ◽  
Shuai Cao ◽  
Qingling Yao ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ischemic stroke (IS) is a principal contributor to long-term disability in adults. A new cell death mediated by iron is ferroptosis, characterized by lethal aggregation of lipid peroxidation. However, a paucity of ferroptosis-related biomarkers early identify IS until now. This study investigated potential ferroptosis-related gene pair biomarkers in IS and explored their roles in immune infiltration. Results In total, we identified 6 differentially expressed ferroptosis-related genes (DEFRGs) in the metadata cohort. Of these genes, 4 DEFRGs were incorporated into the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, including 78 lncRNA-miRNA and 16 miRNA-mRNA interactions. Based on relative expression values of DEFRGs, we constructed gene pairs. An integrated scheme consisting of machine learning algorithms, ceRNA network, and gene pair was proposed to screen the key DEFRG biomarkers. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve witnessed that the diagnostic performance of DEFRG pair CDKN1A/JUN was superior to that of single gene. Moreover, the CIBERSORT algorithm exhibited immune infiltration landscapes: plasma cells, resting NK cells, and resting mast cells infiltrated less in IS samples than controls. Spearman correlation analysis confirmed a significant correlation between plasma cells and CDKN1A/JUN (CDKN1A: r = − 0.503, P < 0.001, JUN: r = − 0.330, P = 0.025). Conclusions Our findings suggested that CDKN1A/JUN could be a robust and promising gene-pair diagnostic biomarker for IS, regulating ferroptosis during IS progression via C9orf106/C9orf139-miR-22-3p-CDKN1A and GAS5-miR-139-5p/miR-429-JUN axes. Meanwhile, plasma cells might exert a vital interplay in IS immune microenvironment, providing an innovative insight for IS therapeutic target.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mona Rams ◽  
Tim O.F. Conrad

Abstract Background Pseudotime estimation from dynamic single-cell transcriptomic data enables characterisation and understanding of the underlying processes, for example developmental processes. Various pseudotime estimation methods have been proposed during the last years. Typically, these methods start with a dimension reduction step because the low-dimensional representation is usually easier to analyse. Approaches such as PCA, ICA or t-SNE belong to the most widely used methods for dimension reduction in pseudotime estimation methods. However, these methods usually make assumptions on the derived dimensions, which can result in important dataset properties being missed. In this paper, we suggest a new dictionary learning based approach, dynDLT, for dimension reduction and pseudotime estimation of dynamic transcriptomic data. Dictionary learning is a matrix factorisation approach that does not restrict the dependence of the derived dimensions. To evaluate the performance, we conduct a large simulation study and analyse 8 real-world datasets. Results The simulation studies reveal that firstly, dynDLT preserves the simulated patterns in low-dimension and the pseudotimes can be derived from the low-dimensional representation. Secondly, the results show that dynDLT is suitable for the detection of genes exhibiting the simulated dynamic patterns, thereby facilitating the interpretation of the compressed representation and thus the dynamic processes. For the real-world data analysis, we select datasets with samples that are taken at different time points throughout an experiment. The pseudotimes found by dynDLT have high correlations with the experimental times. We compare the results to other approaches used in pseudotime estimation, or those that are method-wise closely connected to dictionary learning: ICA, NMF, PCA, t-SNE, and UMAP. DynDLT has the best overall performance for the simulated and real-world datasets. Conclusions We introduce dynDLT, a method that is suitable for pseudotime estimation. Its main advantages are: (1) It presents a model-free approach, meaning that it does not restrict the dependence of the derived dimensions; (2) Genes that are relevant in the detected dynamic processes can be identified from the dictionary matrix; (3) By a restriction of the dictionary entries to positive values, the dictionary atoms are highly interpretable.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Biplabendu Das ◽  
Charissa de Bekker

Abstract Background Circadian clocks allow organisms to anticipate daily fluctuations in their environment by driving rhythms in physiology and behavior. Inter-organismal differences in daily rhythms, called chronotypes, exist and can shift with age. In ants, age, caste-related behavior and chronotype appear to be linked. Brood-tending nurse ants are usually younger individuals and show “around-the-clock” activity. With age or in the absence of brood, nurses transition into foraging ants that show daily rhythms in activity. Ants can adaptively shift between these behavioral castes and caste-associated chronotypes depending on social context. We investigated how changes in daily gene expression could be contributing to such behavioral plasticity in Camponotus floridanus carpenter ants by combining time-course behavioral assays and RNA-Sequencing of forager and nurse brains. Results We found that nurse brains have three times fewer 24 h oscillating genes than foragers. However, several hundred genes that oscillated every 24 h in forager brains showed robust 8 h oscillations in nurses, including the core clock genes Period and Shaggy. These differentially rhythmic genes consisted of several components of the circadian entrainment and output pathway, including genes said to be involved in regulating insect locomotory behavior. We also found that Vitellogenin, known to regulate division of labor in social insects, showed robust 24 h oscillations in nurse brains but not in foragers. Finally, we found significant overlap between genes differentially expressed between the two ant castes and genes that show ultradian rhythms in daily expression. Conclusion This study provides a first look at the chronobiological differences in gene expression between forager and nurse ant brains. This endeavor allowed us to identify a putative molecular mechanism underlying plastic timekeeping: several components of the ant circadian clock and its output can seemingly oscillate at different harmonics of the circadian rhythm. We propose that such chronobiological plasticity has evolved to allow for distinct regulatory networks that underlie behavioral castes, while supporting swift caste transitions in response to colony demands. Behavioral division of labor is common among social insects. The links between chronobiological and behavioral plasticity that we found in C. floridanus, thus, likely represent a more general phenomenon that warrants further investigation.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiqin Wang ◽  
Zhifen Yang ◽  
Luxi Shi ◽  
Rui Yang ◽  
Hao Guo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Drought stress severely restricts edible fungus production. The genus Auricularia has a rare drought tolerance, a rehydration capability, and is nutrient rich. Results The key genes and metabolic pathways involved in drought-stress and rehydration were investigated using a transcriptome analysis to clarify the relevant molecular mechanisms. In total, 173.93 Mb clean reads, 26.09 Gb of data bulk, and 52,954 unigenes were obtained. Under drought-stress and rehydration conditions, 14,235 and 8539 differentially expressed genes, respectively, were detected. ‘Tyrosine metabolic’, ‘caffeine metabolism’, ‘ribosome’, ‘phagosome’, and ‘proline and arginine metabolism’, as well as ‘peroxisome’ and ‘mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling’ pathways, had major roles in A. fibrillifera responses to drought stress. ‘Tyrosine’ and ‘caffeine metabolism’ might reveal unknown mechanisms for the antioxidation of A. fibrillifera under drought-stress conditions. During the rehydration process, ‘diterpenoid biosynthesis’, ‘butanoate metabolism’, ‘C5-branched dibasic acid’, and ‘aflatoxin biosynthesis’ pathways were significantly enriched. Gibberellins and γ-aminobutyric acid were important in the recovery of A. fibrillifera growth after rehydration. Many genes related to antibiotics, vitamins, and other health-related ingredients were found in A. fibrillifera. Conclusion These findings suggested that the candidate genes and metabolites involved in crucial biological pathways might regulate the drought tolerance or rehydration of Auricularia, shedding light on the corresponding mechanisms and providing new potential targets for the breeding and cultivation of drought-tolerant fungi.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sixian Chen ◽  
Aizhen Fu ◽  
Yuan Lu ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Yongfeng Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Lung carcinoma is a common geriatric disease. The development of genotype-targeted therapies greatly improved the management of lung carcinoma. However, the treatment for old patients can be more complex than that for young individuals. Results To investigate the benefits of genetic detection for older patients with lung carcinoma, we explored the genomic profiling of 258 patients with more than 55 years using a targeted next generation sequencing, and some of these patients were treated with targeted therapies based on the results of genomic detection. KRAS codon 61 mutations were found in 15.2% KRAS-mutated patients, which tend to be co-existing with other classical activating mutations other than codons 12/13. Acquired EGFR C797S mutations were identified in 2 cases and ERBB2 amplification was identified in 1 case. All these 3 cases developed resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and showed expected results of their followed therapies. The median progression-free survival and median overall survival of patients treated with molecular targeted therapies were better than those of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy alone. Conclusions Our findings revealed the specific genomic profiles of patients older than 55 years with lung carcinoma and suggested that these old patients have been benefit from the genetic detection, which helped identify druggable mutations and distinguish resistance mechanisms.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenna Swetha ◽  
Anushree Narjala ◽  
Awadhesh Pandit ◽  
Varsha Tirumalai ◽  
P. V. Shivaprasad

Abstract Background Small non-coding (s)RNAs are involved in the negative regulation of gene expression, playing critical roles in genome integrity, development and metabolic pathways. Targeting of RNAs by ribonucleoprotein complexes of sRNAs bound to Argonaute (AGO) proteins results in cleaved RNAs having precise and predictable 5` ends. While tools to study sliced bits of RNAs to confirm the efficiency of sRNA-mediated regulation are available, they are sub-optimal. In this study, we provide an improvised version of a tool with better efficiency to accurately validate sRNA targets. Results Here, we improvised the CleaveLand tool to identify additional micro (mi)RNA targets that belong to the same family and also other targets within a specified free energy cut-off. These additional targets were otherwise excluded during the default run. We employed these tools to understand the sRNA targeting efficiency in wild and cultivated rice, sequenced degradome from two rice lines, O. nivara and O. sativa indica Pusa Basmati-1 and analyzed variations in sRNA targeting. Our results indicate the existence of multiple miRNA-mediated targeting differences between domesticated and wild species. For example, Os5NG4 was targeted only in wild rice that might be responsible for the poor secondary wall formation when compared to cultivated rice. We also identified differential mRNA targets of secondary sRNAs that were generated after miRNA-mediated cleavage of primary targets. Conclusions We identified many differentially targeted mRNAs between wild and domesticated rice lines. In addition to providing a step-wise guide to generate and analyze degradome datasets, we showed how domestication altered sRNA-mediated cascade silencing during the evolution of indica rice.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sirlene Viana de Faria ◽  
Leandro Tonello Zuffo ◽  
Wemerson Mendonça Rezende ◽  
Diego Gonçalves Caixeta ◽  
Hélcio Duarte Pereira ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The characterization of genetic diversity and population differentiation for maize inbred lines from breeding programs is of great value in assisting breeders in maintaining and potentially increasing the rate of genetic gain. In our study, we characterized a set of 187 tropical maize inbred lines from the public breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) in Brazil based on 18 agronomic traits and 3,083 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers to evaluate whether this set of inbred lines represents a panel of tropical maize inbred lines for association mapping analysis and investigate the population structure and patterns of relationships among the inbred lines from UFV for better exploitation in our maize breeding program. Results Our results showed that there was large phenotypic and genotypic variation in the set of tropical maize inbred lines from the UFV maize breeding program. We also found high genetic diversity (GD = 0.34) and low pairwise kinship coefficients among the maize inbred lines (only approximately 4.00 % of the pairwise relative kinship was above 0.50) in the set of inbred lines. The LD decay distance over all ten chromosomes in the entire set of maize lines with r2 = 0.1 was 276,237 kb. Concerning the population structure, our results from the model-based STRUCTURE and principal component analysis methods distinguished the inbred lines into three subpopulations, with high consistency maintained between both results. Additionally, the clustering analysis based on phenotypic and molecular data grouped the inbred lines into 14 and 22 genetic divergence clusters, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that the set of tropical maize inbred lines from UFV maize breeding programs can comprise a panel of tropical maize inbred lines suitable for a genome-wide association study to dissect the variation of complex quantitative traits in maize, mainly in tropical environments. In addition, our results will be very useful for assisting us in the assignment of heterotic groups and the selection of the best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping populations, mapping synthetic populations, guiding crosses that target highly heterotic and yielding hybrids, and predicting untested hybrids in the public breeding program UFV.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Haitao Xing ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Yun Ren ◽  
Ying Zhao ◽  
Xiaoli Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small functional RNAs that govern the post-transcriptional regulatory system of gene expression and control the growth and development of plants. Ginger is an herb that is well-known for its flavor and medicinal properties. The genes involved in ginger rhizome development and secondary metabolism have been discovered, but the genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their overall expression profiles and targets during ginger rhizome development are largely unknown. In this study, we used BGISEQ-500 technology to perform genome-wide identification of miRNAs from the leaf, stem, root, flower, and rhizome of ginger during three development stages. Results In total, 104 novel miRNAs and 160 conserved miRNAs in 28 miRNA families were identified. A total of 181 putative target genes for novel miRNAs and 2772 putative target genes for conserved miRNAs were predicted. Transcriptional factors were the most abundant target genes of miRNAs, and 17, 9, 8, 4, 13, 8, 3 conserved miRNAs and 5, 7, 4, 5, 5, 15, 9 novel miRNAs showed significant tissue-specific expression patterns in leaf, stem, root, flower, and rhizome. Additionally, 53 miRNAs were regarded as rhizome development-associated miRNAs, which mostly participate in metabolism, signal transduction, transport, and catabolism, suggesting that these miRNAs and their target genes play important roles in the rhizome development of ginger. Twelve candidate miRNA target genes were selected, and then, their credibility was confirmed using qRT-PCR. As the result of qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of 12 candidate target genes showed an opposite pattern after comparison with their miRNAs. The rhizome development system of ginger was observed to be governed by miR156, miR319, miR171a_2, miR164, and miR529, which modulated the expression of the SPL, MYB, GRF, SCL, and NAC genes, respectively. Conclusion This is a deep genome-wide investigation of miRNA and identification of miRNAs involved in rhizome development in ginger. We identified 52 rhizome-related miRNAs and 392 target genes, and this provides an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the miRNA target genes that mediate rhizome development in ginger.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
J. S. Nantongo ◽  
B. M. Potts ◽  
T. Frickey ◽  
E. Telfer ◽  
H. Dungey ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Plants are attacked by diverse insect and mammalian herbivores and respond with different physical and chemical defences. Transcriptional changes underlie these phenotypic changes. Simulated herbivory has been used to study the transcriptional and other early regulation events of these plant responses. In this study, constitutive and induced transcriptional responses to artificial bark stripping are compared in the needles and the bark of Pinus radiata to the responses from application of the plant stressor, methyl jasmonate. The time progression of the responses was assessed over a 4-week period. Results Of the 6312 unique transcripts studied, 86.6% were differentially expressed between the needles and the bark prior to treatment. The most abundant constitutive transcripts were related to defence and photosynthesis and their expression did not differ between the needles and the bark. While no differential expression of transcripts were detected in the needles following bark stripping, in the bark this treatment caused an up-regulation and down-regulation of genes associated with primary and secondary metabolism. Methyl jasmonate treatment caused differential expression of transcripts in both the bark and the needles, with individual genes related to primary metabolism more responsive than those associated with secondary metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to sugar break-down and the repression of genes related with photosynthesis, following both treatments was consistent with the strong down-regulation of sugars that has been observed in the same population. Relative to the control, the treatments caused a differential expression of genes involved in signalling, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as defence and water stress. However, non-overlapping transcripts were detected between the needles and the bark, between treatments and at different times of assessment. Methyl jasmonate induced more transcriptional responses in the bark than bark stripping, although the peak of expression following both treatments was detected 7 days post treatment application. The effects of bark stripping were localised, and no systemic changes were detected in the needles. Conclusion There are constitutive and induced differences in the needle and bark transcriptome of Pinus radiata. Some expression responses to bark stripping may differ from other biotic and abiotic stresses, which contributes to the understanding of plant molecular responses to diverse stresses. Whether the gene expression changes are heritable and how they differ between resistant and susceptible families identified in earlier studies needs further investigation.


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