cognitive ability
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 100223
Rachael K. Blackman ◽  
Dwight Dickinson ◽  
Daniel P. Eisenberg ◽  
Michael D. Gregory ◽  
José A. Apud ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shaowu Lin ◽  
Yafei Wu ◽  
Ya Fang

BackgroundDepression is highly prevalent and considered as the most common psychiatric disorder in home-based elderly, while study on forecasting depression risk in the elderly is still limited. In an endeavor to improve accuracy of depression forecasting, machine learning (ML) approaches have been recommended, in addition to the application of more traditional regression approaches.MethodsA prospective study was employed in home-based elderly Chinese, using baseline (2011) and follow-up (2013) data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative cohort study. We compared four algorithms, including the regression-based models (logistic regression, lasso, ridge) and ML method (random forest). Model performance was assessed using repeated nested 10-fold cross-validation. As the main measure of predictive performance, we used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).ResultsThe mean AUCs of the four predictive models, logistic regression, lasso, ridge, and random forest, were 0.795, 0.794, 0.794, and 0.769, respectively. The main determinants were life satisfaction, self-reported memory, cognitive ability, ADL (activities of daily living) impairment, CESD-10 score. Life satisfaction increased the odds ratio of a future depression by 128.6% (logistic), 13.8% (lasso), and 13.2% (ridge), and cognitive ability was the most important predictor in random forest.ConclusionsThe three regression-based models and one ML algorithm performed equally well in differentiating between a future depression case and a non-depression case in home-based elderly. When choosing a model, different considerations, however, such as easy operating, might in some instances lead to one model being prioritized over another.

2022 ◽  
Jane Suilin Lavelle

The cognitive ability to think about other people's psychological states is known as `mindreading'. This Element critiques assumptions that have been formative in shaping philosophical theories of mindreading: that mindreading is ubiquitous, underpinning the vast majority of our social interactions; and that its primary goal is to provide predictions and explanations of other people's behaviour. It begins with an overview of key positions and empirical literature in the debate. It then introduces and motivates the pluralist turn in this literature, which challenges the core assumptions of the traditional views. The second part of the Element uses case studies to further motivate the pluralist framework, and to advocate the pluralist approach as the best way to progress our understanding of social cognitive phenomena.

2022 ◽  
Jay Joseph

In 1990, Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. and colleagues published the widely cited 1990 “Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart” (MISTRA) Science IQ study. To arrive at the conclusion that “IQ is strongly affected by genetic factors,” Bouchard and colleagues omitted their control group reared-apart dizygotic twin (“DZA”) IQ-score correlations. Near-full-sample correlations published after the study’s 2000 endpoint show that the reared-apart monozygotic twin (“MZA”) and DZA group IQ correlations did not differ at a statistically significant level, suggesting that the study failed the first step in determining that IQ scores are influenced by heredity. After bypassing the model-fitting technique they used in most non-IQ MISTRA studies, the researchers assumed that the MZA group IQ-score correlation alone “directly estimates heritability.” This method was based on unsupported assumptions by the researchers, and they largely overlooked the confounding influence of cohort effects. Bouchard and colleagues then decided to count most environmental influences they did recognize as genetic influences. I conclude that the MISTRA IQ study failed to discover genetic influences on IQ scores and cognitive ability across the studied population, and that the study should be evaluated in the context of psychology’s replication problem.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mathias Reichert ◽  
Ionel Valentin Popeneciu ◽  
Annemarie Uhlig ◽  
Lutz Trojan ◽  
Mirjam Naomi Mohr

Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a wide-spread and feared side-effect of conventional or even robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) due to its high impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). Non-modifiable risk factors for UI have already been identified – on surgical and patient side. Yet, to our knowledge, focus thus far has not been placed on functional aspects regarding general cognitive ability.Materials and Methods: This is an observational single-center, prospective, double-blinded evaluation of 109 RALPs performed between 07/2020 and 03/2021. All patients underwent a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) prior to surgery to evaluate their cognitive ability. Early post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) was evaluated using a standardized 1 h pad test performed 24 h after removal of the urinary catheter. The association between MMSE results and PPI were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified MMSE results and nerve sparing (NS) as independent predictors for PPI in patients with an intermediate MMSE result (25–27 points) having a 3.17 times higher risk of PPI when compared to patients with a good MMSE result (≥28) (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.22–9.06, p = 0.023), while patients without NS had a 3.53 times higher risk of PPI when compared to patients with NS (95% CI: 1.54–11.09, p = 0.006).Conclusion: A lower cognitive ability should be treated as a non-modifiable risk-factor for early PPI. In the future it could find its place as a clinical screening tool to identify patients who require more attention especially in the pre-, but also in the postoperative phase.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 798-801
Fan Gao ◽  
Thawascha Dechsubha

This paper offers a comprehensive survey of translation ethics within the theoretical frame of Lady Welby’s meaning triad concerning the relationship between ethics and translation in the meaning process of sign activities. The paper mainly discusses such aspects as: (1) the relationship between meaning triad and translation ethics, (2) upward translation as a method to maximize ethical value and (3) enhancement of translation ethics as a goal of upward translation. The results of the paper can be found as the following: 1. the evolutionary process of meaning from sense to meaning and then to significance is the path for the improvement of translators’ cognitive ability and the sublimation of translator or interpreter’s ethics and morality. 2. Upward translation serves as a key to enhancing translators’ ethical consciousness.3. translation, meaning and ethics are correlated and interrelated mechanism. Therefore, the implications of the dynamic and dialogic view of translation and meaning will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical vision for the construction of translation ethics.   Keywords: meaning triad; upward translation; translation ethics

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