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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Lukas Buchheim ◽  
Carla Krolage ◽  
Sebastian Link

Abstract COVID-19 hit firms by surprise. In a high frequency, representative panel of German firms, the business outlook declined and business uncertainty increased only at the time when the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic led to domestic policy changes: The announcement of nation-wide school closures on March 13 was followed by the largest change in business perceptions by far. In contrast, the data provides no evidence for the relevance of other potential sources of information on business perceptions: Firms did not learn from foreign policy measures, even if they relied on inputs from China or Italy. The local, county-level spread of COVID-19 cases affected expectations and uncertainty, albeit to a much lesser extent than the domestic policy changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-17
N. M. Bulanov ◽  
O. B. Blyuss ◽  
D. B. Munblit ◽  
N. A. Nekliudov ◽  
D. V. Butnaru ◽  

Adequate design is an essential condition for conducting a successful study. This review describes the most common types of research design in medicine. We discuss the differences between different types of observational and interventional studies, their advantages and limitations providing examples for each study design. The concept of bias and its potential sources in different studies are covered. We suggest the most suitable approaches to study design for different research objectives and outline approaches to data presentation. During the last decades, several guidelines for conducting and reporting different types of research were proposed and they are also covered in this manuscript.

2021 ◽  
Margaret Kandel ◽  
Colin Phillips

Although reflexive–antecedent agreement shows little susceptibility to number attraction in comprehension, prior production research using the preamble-completion paradigm has demonstrated attraction for both verbs and anaphora. In four production experiments, we compared number attraction effects on subject–verb and reflexive–antecedent agreement using a novel scene-description task in addition to a more traditional preamble elicitation paradigm. While the results from the preamble task align with prior findings, the more naturalistic scene description task produced the same contrast observed in comprehension, with robust verb attraction but minimal anaphor attraction. In addition to analyzing agreement error distributions, we also analyzed the production time-course of participant responses, finding timing effects that pattern with error distributions, even when no error is present. The results suggest that production agreement processes show similar profiles to comprehension processes. We discuss potential sources of variable susceptibility to agreement attraction, suggesting that differences may arise from the time-course of information processing across tasks and linguistic dependencies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Athanasios Pavlou ◽  
Robert M. Kurtz ◽  
Jae W. Song

Accuracy is an important parameter of a diagnostic test. Studies that attempt to determine a test’s accuracy can suffer from various forms of bias. As radiology is a diagnostic specialty, many radiologists may design a diagnostic accuracy study or review one to understand how it may apply to their practice. Radiologists also frequently serve as consultants to other physicians regarding the selection of the most appropriate diagnostic exams. In these roles, understanding how to critically appraise the literature is important for all radiologists. The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for evaluating potential sources of study design biases that are found in diagnostic accuracy studies and to explain their impact on sensitivity and specificity estimates. To help the reader understand these biases, we also present examples from the radiology literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 43
Paul Strubinger Sandoval ◽  
Giorgio Dall'Olmo ◽  
Keith Haines ◽  
Rafael Rasse ◽  
Jelizaveta Ross

Measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the open ocean provide grounds for estimating oceanic carbon budgets and for modelling carbon cycling. The majority of the published POC measurements have been collected at the sea surface. Thus, POC stocks in the upper layer of the water column are relatively well constrained. However, our understanding of the POC distribution and its dynamics in deeper areas is modest due to insufficient in POC measurements. Moreover, the accuracy of published POC estimates is not always quantified, and neither is it fully understood. In this study, we determined the POC concentrations of samples collected in the upper 500 m during an Atlantic Meridional Transect and described a method for quantifying its experimental uncertainties using duplicate measurements. The analysis revealed that the medians of the total experimental uncertainties associated with our POC concentrations in the productive and mesopelagic zones were 2.5(±1.2) mg/m3 and 2.6(±0.6) mg/m3, respectively. In relative terms, these uncertainties corresponded to ~14% and ~ 35% of POC concentrations, respectively. However, despite our best efforts, we could explain only ~ 21% of the total experimental POC uncertainty. The potential sources of this unexplained portion of uncertainty are discussed.

O. R. Adeoyo

Ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi and related fungal root endophytes do form symbiotic associations with roots of ericaceous plants. These groups of fungi can have profound impact on community of plants in soil environment. Studies conducted on Hymenoscyphus ericae revealed that H. ericae can produce extracellular enzymes such as phosphatases, proteases, cellulases and pectinases, which support the utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and permitting access to other valuable nutrient embedded within the soil and decaying plant tissues. Most studies conducted on extracellular enzymes from these fungi majorly focused on the use of plating method to determine activity. Currently, there is little information on extracellular enzymes from ERM for the bio-economy, but there are proofs that some ericoid, ectomycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi have the potential to produce a good number of hydrolytic enzymes in vitro. Therefore, this review seeks to employ available information on these fungi and their ability to produce enzymes when growing in liquid medium where their production can be optimized for commercial purposes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (35) ◽  
Davide Resi ◽  
Stefania Varani ◽  
Anna Rosa Sannella ◽  
Alessandra M De Pascali ◽  
Margherita Ortalli ◽  

Giardiasis, the disease caused by the flagellate Giardia duodenalis (syn. G.lamblia, G. intestinalis), is the most commonly reported among the five food- and waterborne parasitic diseases under mandatory surveillance in 24 EU countries. From November 2018 to April 2019, an outbreak of giardiasis occurred in a municipality of the Bologna province, in north-eastern Italy. Microscopy and immunochromatography identified cysts and antigens, respectively, of the parasite in stool samples of 228 individuals. Molecular typing of 136 stool samples revealed a vast predominance (95%) of G. duodenalis assemblage B. Investigations into potential sources indicated tap water as the most likely vehicle of infection, although cysts were not detected in water samples. Control measures mostly aimed at preventing secondary transmission by informing citizens about the outbreak, and by treatment of patients with anti-parasitic drugs. This is the first documented human outbreak of giardiasis in Italy; its investigation has highlighted the difficulties in the timely detection and management of this parasite, which is often overlooked as a cause of human gastroenteritis. The long and variable incubation time, absence of specific symptoms and a general lack of awareness about this pathogen contributed to delay in diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 112025
Benjamin F. Swaringen ◽  
Emory Gawlik ◽  
George D. Kamenov ◽  
Nancy E. McTigue ◽  
David A. Cornwell ◽  

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