malaria vectors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Nathália Coelho Vargas de Almeida ◽  
Jaime Louzada ◽  
Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos Neves ◽  
Thiago M. Carvalho ◽  
Júlio Castro-Alves ◽  

Abstract Background Malaria control requires local action. Assessing the vector diversity and abundance provides information on the local malariogenic potential or risk of transmission. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles species composition, habitats, seasonal occurrence, and distribution in areas with autochthonous and imported malaria cases in Roraima State. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted from January 2017 to October 2018, sampling larvae and adult mosquitoes in three municipalities of Roraima State: Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. These areas have different risks of malaria importation. Four to six mosquito larval habitats were selected for larval sampling at each municipality, along with two additional sites for adult mosquito collection. All larval habitats were surveyed every two months using a standardized larval sampling methodology and MosqTent for adult mosquitoes. Results A total of 544 Anopheles larvae and 1488 adult mosquitoes were collected from the three municipalities studied. Although the species abundance differed between municipalities, the larvae of Anopheles albitarsis s.l., Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were collected from all larval habitats studied while Anopheles darlingi were collected only from Boa Vista and São João da Baliza. Adults of 11 species of the genus Anopheles were collected, and the predominant species in Boa Vista was An. albitarsis (88.2%) followed by An. darlingi (6.9%), while in São João da Baliza, An. darlingi (85.6%) was the most predominant species followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (9.2%). In contrast, the most abundant species in Pacaraima was Anopheles braziliensis (62%), followed by Anopheles peryassui (18%). Overall, the majority of anophelines exhibited greater extradomicile than peridomicile-biting preference. Anopheles darlingi was the only species found indoors. Variability in biting times was observed among species and municipalities. Conclusion This study revealed the composition of anopheline species and habitats in Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. The species sampled differed in their behaviour with only An. darlingi being found indoors. Anopheles darlingi appeared to be the most important vector in São João da Baliza, an area of autochthonous malaria, and An. albitarsis s.l. and An. braziliensis in areas of low transmission, although there were increasing reports of imported malaria. Understanding the diversity of vector species and their ecology is essential for designing effective vector control strategies for these municipalities.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261713
Assalif Demissew ◽  
Abebe Animut ◽  
Solomon Kibret ◽  
Arega Tsegaye ◽  
Dawit Hawaria ◽  

Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets are among the key malaria control intervention tools. However, their efficacy is declining due to the development and spread of insecticide resistant vectors. In Ethiopia, several studies reported resistance of An. arabiensis to multiple insecticide classes. However, such data is scarce in irrigated areas of the country where insecticides, pesticides and herbicides are intensively used. Susceptibility of An. gambiae s.l. to existing and new insecticides and resistance mechanisms were assessed in Arjo-Didessa sugarcane plantation area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods Adult An. gambiae s.l. reared from larval/pupal collections of Arjo-Didessa sugarcane irrigation area and its surrounding were tested for their susceptibility to selected insecticides. Randomly selected An. gambiae s.l. (dead and survived) samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were further analyzed for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles using allele-specific PCR. Results Among the 214 An. gambiae s.l. samples analyzed by PCR, 89% (n = 190) were An. amharicus and 9% (n = 20) were An. arabiensis. Mortality rates of the An. gambiae s.l. exposed to deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin were 85% and 86.8%, respectively. On the other hand, mortalities against pirmiphos-methyl, bendiocarb, propoxur and clothianidin were 100%, 99%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Of those sub-samples (An. amharicus and An. arabiensis) examined for presence of kdr gene, none of them were found to carry the L1014F (West African) allelic mutation. Conclusion Anopheles amharicus and An. arabiensis from Arjo-Didessa sugarcane irrigation area were resistant to pyrethroids which might be synergized by extensive use of agricultural chemicals. Occurrence of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors could challenge the ongoing malaria control and elimination program in the area unless resistance management strategies are implemented. Given the resistance of An. amharicus to pyrethroids, its behavior and vectorial capacity should be further investigated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Corine Ngufor ◽  
Josias Fagbohoun ◽  
Abel Agbevo ◽  
Hanafy Ismail ◽  
Joseph D. Challenger ◽  

Abstract Background Pyrethroid-PBO nets were conditionally recommended for control of malaria transmitted by mosquitoes with oxidase-based pyrethroid-resistance based on epidemiological evidence of additional protective effect with Olyset Plus compared to a pyrethroid-only net (Olyset Net). Entomological studies can be used to assess the comparative performance of other brands of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs to Olyset Plus. Methods An experimental hut trial was performed in Cové, Benin to compare PermaNet 3.0 (deltamethrin plus PBO on roof panel only) to Olyset Plus (permethrin plus PBO on all panels) against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Both nets were tested unwashed and after 20 standardized washes compared to Olyset Net. Laboratory bioassays were also performed to help explain findings in the experimental huts. Results With unwashed nets, mosquito mortality was higher in huts with PermaNet 3.0 compared to Olyset Plus (41% vs. 28%, P < 0.001). After 20 washes, mortality declined significantly with PermaNet 3.0 (41% unwashed vs. 17% after washing P < 0.001), but not with Olyset Plus (28% unwashed vs. 24% after washing P = 0.433); Olyset Plus induced significantly higher mortality than PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net after 20 washes. PermaNet 3.0 showed a higher wash retention of PBO compared to Olyset Plus. A non-inferiority analysis performed with data from unwashed and washed nets together using a margin recommended by the WHO, showed that PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in terms of mosquito mortality (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 27% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.528, 95%CI = 1.02–2.29) but not in reducing mosquito feeding (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 30% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.192, 95%CI = 0.77–1.84). Both pyrethroid-PBO nets were superior to Olyset Net. Conclusion Olyset Plus outperformed PermaNet 3.0 in terms of its ability to cause greater margins of improved mosquito mortality compared to a standard pyrethroid net, after multiple standardized washes. However, using a margin of non-inferiority defined by the WHO, PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in inducing mosquito mortality. Considering the low levels of mortality observed and increasing pyrethroid-resistance in West Africa, it is unclear whether either of these nets would demonstrate the same epidemiological impact observed in community trials in East Africa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Sundus Shafat Ahmad ◽  
Manju Rahi ◽  
Poonam Saroha ◽  
Amit Sharma

AbstractMalaria constitutes one of the largest public health burdens faced by humanity. Malaria control has to be an efficient balance between diagnosis, treatment and vector control strategies. The World Health Organization currently recommends indoor residual spraying and impregnated bed nets as two malaria vector control methods that have shown robust and persistent results against endophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species. The Indian government launched the National Framework for Malaria Elimination in 2016 with the aim to achieve the elimination of malaria in a phased and strategic manner and to sustain a nation-wide malaria-free status by 2030. India is currently in a crucial phase of malaria elimination and novel vector control strategies maybe helpful in dealing with various challenges, such as vector behavioural adaptations and increasing insecticide resistance among the Anopheles populations of India. Ivermectin can be one such new tool as it is the first endectocide to be approved in both animals and humans. Trials of ivermectin have been conducted in endemic areas of Africa with promising results. In this review, we assess available data on ivermectin as an endectocide and propose that this endectocide should be explored as a vector control tool for malaria in India. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Iliyas Rashid ◽  
Melina Campos ◽  
Travis Collier ◽  
Marc Crepeau ◽  
Allison Weakley ◽  

AbstractUsing high-depth whole genome sequencing of F0 mating pairs and multiple individual F1 offspring, we estimated the nuclear mutation rate per generation in the malaria vectors Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles stephensi by detecting de novo genetic mutations. A purpose-built computer program was employed to filter actual mutations from a deep background of superficially similar artifacts resulting from read misalignment. Performance of filtering parameters was determined using software-simulated mutations, and the resulting estimate of false negative rate was used to correct final mutation rate estimates. Spontaneous mutation rates by base substitution were estimated at 1.00 × 10−9 (95% confidence interval, 2.06 × 10−10—2.91 × 10−9) and 1.36 × 10−9 (95% confidence interval, 4.42 × 10−10—3.18 × 10−9) per site per generation in A. coluzzii and A. stephensi respectively. Although similar studies have been performed on other insect species including dipterans, this is the first study to empirically measure mutation rates in the important genus Anopheles, and thus provides an estimate of µ that will be of utility for comparative evolutionary genomics, as well as for population genetic analysis of malaria vector mosquito species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dónall Eoin Cross ◽  
Amy J. E. Healey ◽  
Niall J. McKeown ◽  
Christopher James Thomas ◽  
Nicolae Adrian Macarie ◽  

AbstractRegional optimisation of malaria vector control approaches requires detailed understanding both of the species composition of Anopheles mosquito communities, and how they vary over spatial and temporal scales. Knowledge of vector community dynamics is particularly important in settings where ecohydrological conditions fluctuate seasonally and inter-annually, such as the Barotse floodplain of the upper Zambezi river. DNA barcoding of anopheline larvae sampled in the 2019 wet season revealed the predominance of secondary vector species, with An. coustani comprising > 80% of sampled larvae and distributed ubiquitously across all ecological zones. Extensive larval sampling, plus a smaller survey of adult mosquitoes, identified geographic clusters of primary vectors, but represented only 2% of anopheline larvae. Comparisons with larval surveys in 2017/2018 and a contemporaneous independent 5-year dataset from adult trapping corroborated this paucity of primary vectors across years, and the consistent numerical dominance of An. coustani and other secondary vectors in both dry and wet seasons, despite substantial inter-annual variation in hydrological conditions. This marked temporal consistency of spatial distribution and anopheline community composition presents an opportunity to target predominant secondary vectors outdoors. Larval source management should be considered, alongside prevalent indoor-based approaches, amongst a diversification of vector control approaches to more effectively combat residual malaria transmission.

2022 ◽  
Magellan Tchouakui ◽  
Tatiane Assatse ◽  
Leon M. J. Mugenzi ◽  
Benjamin D. Menze ◽  
Daniel Nguiffo-Nguete ◽  

Abstract Background New insecticides with a novel mode of action such as neonicotinoids have recently been recommended for public health by WHO. Resistance monitoring of such novel insecticides requires a robust protocol to monitor the development of resistance in natural populations. In this study, we comparatively used three different solvents to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to neonicotinoids across Africa.MethodsMosquitoes were collected from May to July 2021 from three agricultural settings in Cameroon (Njombe-Penja, Nkolondom, and Mangoum), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ndjili-Brasserie), Ghana (Obuasi), and Uganda (Mayuge). Using the CDC bottle test, we compared the effect of three different solvents (ethanol, acetone, MERO) on the efficacy of neonicotinoids against Anopheles gambiae s.l. In addition, TaqMan assays were used to genotype key pyrethroid-resistant markers in An. gambiae and to evaluate potential cross-resistance between pyrethroids and clothianidin.ResultsLower mortality were observed when using absolute ethanol or acetone alone as solvent (11.4- 51.9% mortality in Nkolondom, 31.7- 48.2% in Mangoum, 34.6- 56.1% in Mayµge, 39.4- 45.6% in Obuasi, 83.7- 89.3% in Congo and 71.05- 95.9% in Njombe pendja) compared to acetone + MERO for which 100% mortality were observed for all the populations. Synergist assays (PBO, DEM and DEF) revealed a significant increase of mortality suggesting that metabolic resistance mechanisms are contributing to the reduced susceptibility. A negative association was observed between the L1014F-kdr mutation and clothianidin resistance with a greater frequency of homozygote resistant mosquitoes among the dead than among survivors (OR=0.5; P=0.02). However, the I114T-GSTe2 was in contrast significantly associated with a greater ability to survive clothianidin with a higher frequency of homozygote resistant among survivors than other genotypes (OR=2.10; P=0.013). ConclusionsThis study revealed a contrasted susceptibility pattern depending on the solvents with ethanol/acetone resulting to lower mortality, thus possibly overestimating resistance, whereas the MERO consistently showed a greater efficacy of neonicotinoids but it could prevent to detect early resistance development. Therefore, we recommend monitoring the susceptibility using both acetone alone and acetone+MERO (8-10µg/ml for clothianidin) to capture the accurate resistance profile of the mosquito populations.

2022 ◽  
Theo Tricou ◽  
Eric Tannier ◽  
Damien M de Vienne

Introgression, endosymbiosis and gene transfer, i.e. Horizontal Gene Flow (HGF), are primordial sources of innovation in all domains of life. Our knowledge on HGF relies on detection methods that exploit some of its signatures left on extant genomes. One of them is the effect of HGF on branch lengths of constructed phylogenies. This signature has been formalized in statistical tests for HGF detection, and used for example to detect massive adaptive gene flows in malaria vectors or to order evolutionary events involved in eukaryogenesis. However these studies rely on the assumption that ghost lineages (all unsampled extant and extinct taxa) have little influence. We demonstrate here with simulations and data re-analysis, that when considering the more realistic condition that unsampled taxa are legion compared to sampled ones, the conclusion of these studies become unfounded or even reversed. This illustrates the necessity to recognize the existence of ghosts in evolutionary studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ashok K. Mishra ◽  
Praveen K Bharti ◽  
Gyan Chand ◽  
Aparup Das ◽  
Himanshu Jayswar ◽  

Background. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are malaria vector control measures used in India, but the development of insecticide resistance poses major impediments for effective vector control strategies. As per the guidelines of the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), the study was conducted in 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh to generate data on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Methods. The susceptibility tests were conducted on adult An. culicifacies as per the WHO standard technique with wild-caught mosquitoes. The blood-fed female mosquitoes were exposed in 3 to 4 replicates on each occasion to the impregnated papers with specified discriminating dosages of the insecticides (DDT: 4%, malathion: 5%, deltamethrin: 0.05%, and alphacypermethrin: 0.05%), for one hour, and mortality was recorded after 24-hour holding. Results. An. culicifacies was found resistant to DDT 4% in all the 12 districts and malathion in 11 districts. The resistance to alphacypermethrin was also observed in two districts, and possible resistance was found to alphacypermethrin in seven districts and to deltamethrin in eight districts, while the vector was found susceptible to both deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin in only 3 districts. Conclusion. An. culicifacies is resistant to DDT and malathion and has emerging resistance to pyrethroids, alphacypermethrin, and deltamethrin. Therefore, regular monitoring of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors is needed for implementing effective vector management strategies. However, studies to verify the impact of IRS with good coverage on the transmission of disease are required before deciding on the change of insecticide in conjunction with epidemiological data.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 200
Dewi Susanna ◽  
Dian Pratiwi

Background: The application of insecticides for malaria vector control has led to a global problem, which is the current trend of increased resistance against these chemicals. This study aimed to review the insecticide resistance status was previously determined in Asia and how to implement the necessary interventions. Moreover, the implications of resistance in malaria vector control in this region were studied. Methods: This systematic review was conducted using a predefined protocol based on PRISMA-retrieved articles from four science databases, namely ProQuest, Science Direct, EBSCO, and PubMed in the last ten years (2009 to 2019). The searching process utilized four main combinations of the following keywords: malaria, vector control, insecticide, and Asia. In ProQuest, malaria control, as well as an insecticide, were used as keywords. The following criteria were included in the filter, namely full text, the source of each article, scholarly journal, Asia, and publication date as in the last ten years. Results: There were 1408 articles retrieved during the initial search (ProQuest=722, Science Direct=267, EBSCO=50, PubMed=285, and Scopus=84). During the screening, 27 articles were excluded because of duplication, 1361 based on title and abstract incompatibility with the inclusion criteria, and 20 due to content differences. In the final screening process, 15 articles were chosen to be analyzed. From the 15 articles, it is known that there was organochlorine (DDT), organophosphate (malathion), and pyrethroids resistance in several Anopheles species with a less than 80% mortality rate. Conclusion: This review found multiple resistance in several Anopheles includes resistance to pyrethroid. The reports of pyrethroid resistance were quite challenging because it is considered effective in the malaria vector control. Several countries in Asia are implementing an insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy against malaria vectors following the Global Plan for IRM.

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