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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Santiago M. C. Lopez ◽  
Nader Shaikh ◽  
Monika Johnson ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Judith M. Martin ◽  

Objective: Children with no pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx are unlikely to have acute bacterial sinusitis. We evaluated whether information on clinical presentation, viral co-detection, and mucosal cytokine levels could be used to predict presence of bacteria in the nasopharynx.Method: We obtained nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children diagnosed with acute sinusitis. NP swabs were processed for bacterial culture, viral PCR testing, and cytokine expression. We examined whether results of the bacterial culture could be predicted based on the presence of clinical information, presence of viruses or mucosal cytokine levels.Results: We enrolled 174 children; 123 (71%) had a positive culture for potentially pathogenic bacteria and 51 (29%) had normal flora. 122/174 (70%) tested positive for one or more viruses. Compared to children with normal flora, children with pathogenic bacteria were more likely to have viruses (p < 0.01), but this relationship disappeared when we adjusted for age. Children with pathogenic bacteria in their nasopharynx and children with normal flora had similar levels of nasal cytokines.Conclusion: In children with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, clinical presentation, levels of nasal cytokines, and presence of viruses do not differentiate children with and without pathogenic bacteria in their nasopharynx.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peijun Tang ◽  
Ermin Liang ◽  
Xuxia Zhang ◽  
Yanjun Feng ◽  
Huafeng Song ◽  

Objectives: Subclinical tuberculosis (TB) represents a substantial proportion of individuals with TB disease, although limited evidence is available to understand the epidemiological characteristics of these cases. We aimed to explore the prevalence of subclinical patients with TB and identify the underlying association between the subclinical TB cases in the study setting and the Beijing genotype.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with incident TB at the Fifth People’s Hospital of Suzhou between January and December 2018. A total of 380 patients with TB were included in our analysis.Results: Of the 380 patients, 81.8% were active TB cases, whereas the other 18.2% were subclinical TB cases. Compared with patients aged 65 years and older, the risk of having subclinical TB is higher among younger patients. The use of smear, culture, and Xpert identified 3, 16, and 13 subclinical TB cases, respectively. When using a combination of positive culture and Xpert results, the sensitivity improved to 33.3%. In addition, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly elevated in the active TB group compared with that in the subclinical TB group. We also observed that the proportion of the Beijing genotype in the subclinical TB group was significantly lower than that in the active TB group.Conclusion: To conclude, our data demonstrate that approximately one-fifth of patients with TB were subclinical in Suzhou. Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be detected by the existing microbiologic diagnostics in one-third of patients with subclinical TB. The patients with subclinical TB are more prone to having low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio values than those with active TB. Additionally, non-Beijing genotype strains are associated with subclinical TB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shuai Li ◽  
Qiang Wang

Abstract Background Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella spp, which can involve the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems. Cardiovascular involvement is a rare occurrence, it has an extremely high mortality rate. Case presentation A 67-year-old Chinese man presented with thoracic aortic multiple ulcers and partial aneurysm formation that caused symptoms of left waist and left buttock pain. The man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal aorta pseudoaneurysms 5 years ago. The diagnosis was made by thoracic computed tomography angiography (CTA), previous history, and positive culture of Brucella, and the patient was successfully treated by thoracic aortic covered stent-graft implantation and specific medical treatment. Conclusions People who have a history of contact with cattle and sheep, should beware of the possibility of Brucella infection. If chest and abdominal pain occur, timely medical treatment is recommended, aortic aneurysm, the disease with a high risk of death, can be identified or excluded by CTA. Early treatment and prevention of disease progression are more beneficial to patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Hyeonji Seo ◽  
Jeong-Young Lee ◽  
Seung Hee Ryu ◽  
Sun Hee Kwak ◽  
Eun Ok Kim ◽  

Abstract Background We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with positive Xpert Carba-R assay results for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) according to CPE culture positivity. Methods We retrospectively collected data for patients with positive CPE (positive Xpert Carba-R or culture) who underwent both tests from August 2018 to March 2021 in a 2700-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. We compared the clinical outcomes of patients positive for Xpert Carba-R according to whether they were positive (XPCP) or negative (XPCN) for CPE culture. Results Of 322 patients with CPE who underwent both Xpert Carba-R and culture, 313 (97%) were positive for Xpert Carba-R for CPE. Of these, 87 (28%) were XPCN, and 226 (72%) were XPCP. XPCN patients were less likely to have a history of previous antibiotic use (75.9% vs 90.3%; P = .001) and to have Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (21.8% vs 48.9%; P < .001). None of the XPCN patients developed infection from colonization within 6 months, whereas 13.4% (29/216) of the XPCP patients did (P < .001). XPCN patients had lower transmission rates than XPCP patients (3.0% [9/305] vs 6.3% [37/592]; P = .03). There was no significant difference in CPE clearance from positive culture results between XPCN and XPCP patients (40.0% [8/20] vs 26.7% [55/206]; P = .21). Conclusions Our study suggests that XPCN patients had lower rates of both infection and transmission than XPCP patients. The Xpert Carba-R assay is clinically useful not only for rapid identification of CPE but also for predicting risks of infection and transmission when performed along with culture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 227
Naim Abu-Freha ◽  
Tal Michael ◽  
Liat Poupko ◽  
Asia Estis-Deaton ◽  
Muhammad Aasla ◽  

(1) Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a feared complication of liver cirrhosis. We investigated the prevalence of SBP, positive ascitic fluid cultures, and risk factors for mortality. (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients with cirrhosis hospitalized or in follow-up in a single center between 1996 and 2020. The clinical data, long-term complications, and mortality of SBP patients were compared with those of non-SBP patients. Ascitic fluid positive culture was compared with those without growth. (3) Results: We included 1035 cirrhotic patients, of which 173 (16.7%) developed SBP. Ascitic fluid culture growth was found in 47.4% of the SBP cases, with Escherichia coli bacteria detected in 38%, 24.4% grew ESBL-producing bacteria, and 14.5% displayed multidrug resistance. In a Cox regression model, SBP, male sex, prolonged INR at diagnosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were found to be risk factors for mortality in cirrhotic patients. The long-term all-cause mortality was 60% in non-SBP and 90% in SBP patients. (4) Conclusions: Only a minority of cirrhotic patients developed SBP, 47.4% of which had positive ascitic fluid cultures with high antibiotic resistance. Growth of ESBL and multidrug resistant organisms is becoming more frequent in the clinical setting, reaching SBP mortality of 90%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Hen Y. Sela ◽  
Vered Seri ◽  
Frederic S. Zimmerman ◽  
Andrea Cortegiani ◽  
Philip D. Levin ◽  

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recently recommended that qSOFA not be used as a single parameter for identification of sepsis. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of SIRS and qSOFA scores in identifying intrauterine infection. This case–control study evaluates SIRS and qSOFA criteria fulfillment in preterm premature rupture of membranes (n = 453)—at high infection risk—versus elective cesarean—at low infection risk (n = 2004); secondary outcomes included intrauterine infection and positive culture rates. At admission, 14.8% of the study group and 4.6% of control met SIRS criteria (p = 0.001), as did 12.5% and 5.5% on post-operation day (POD) 1 (p = 0.001), with no significant differences on POD 0 or 2. Medical records did not suffice for qSOFA calculation. In the study group, more cultures (29.8% versus 1.9%—cervix; 27.4% versus 1.1%—placenta; 7.5% versus 1.7%—blood; p = 0.001—all differences) and positive cultures (5.5% versus 3.0%—urine—p = 0.008; 4.2% versus 0.2%—cervix—p = 0.001; 7.3% versus 0.0%—placenta—p = 0.001; 0.9% versus 0.1%—blood—p = 0.008) were obtained. Overall, 10.6% of the study group and 0.4% of control met the intrauterine infection criteria (p = 0.001). Though a significant difference was noted in SIRS criteria fulfillment in the study group versus control, there was considerable between-group overlap, questioning the utility of SIRS in intrauterine infection diagnosis. Furthermore, the qSOFA scores could not be assessed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Roy Gonzalez ◽  
Ernesto Muñoz-Mahamud ◽  
Guillem Bori

Managing substantial proximal and/or distal femoral bone defects is one of the biggest challenges in chronic hip periprosthetic joint infection. Most authors use two-stage arthroplasty with a temporary antibiotic-loaded cement spacer for the management of these patients. In this study, we show our experience with one-stage exchange arthroplasty in managing severe bone defects due to radiological-extensive proximal femoral osteomyelitis. Two patients were included in the study. They showed radiological-extensive proximal femoral osteomyelitis, and they were treated with one-stage exchange arthroplasty using megaprosthesis. Diffuse osteomyelitis was confirmed in both cases; in one case, the histology was compatible with osteomyelitis, and the other case had a positive culture identified in a bone sample. At a minimum of a four-year follow-up, the patients did not reveal any clinical, radiological or laboratory signs of infection. In conclusion, one-stage exchange arthroplasty and megaprosthesis is an option for the treatment of chronic hip periprosthetic joint infection associated with radiological-diffuse proximal femoral osteomyelitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (Suppl-3) ◽  
pp. S484-86
Aisha Qaiser ◽  
Muhammad Babar Sohail Niazi ◽  
Zaheer Ul Hassan ◽  
Shahid Farroq Khattak ◽  
Shahid Iqbal ◽  

Objective: To compare the validity of FNAC & ZN staining in diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis taking mycobacterial culture as gold standard. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Fauji Foundation Hospital Peshawar, from Oct 2019 to Sep 2020. Methodology: This study includes 100 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes who presented as outdoor patients. After routine baseline & radiological investigations, FNAC & ZN staining was carried out, followed by mycobacterial culture. Results: FNAC of tuberculous patients was positive in 56 (56%) patients while 24 (24%) patients revealed posi-tive mycobacterial culture. Inpatients with positive culture, 77 (77%) were FNAC positive and 23 (23%) were negative on cytology. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration is more sensitive & specific test than Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

2021 ◽  
Gaston Bonenfant ◽  
Jessica Deyoe ◽  
Terianne Wong ◽  
Carlos G. Grijalva ◽  
H. Keipp Talbot ◽  

The novel coronavirus pandemic incited unprecedented demand for assays that detect viral nucleic acids, viral proteins, and corresponding antibodies. The 320 molecular diagnostics in receipt of FDA emergency use authorization mainly focus on viral detection; however, no currently approved test can be used to infer infectiousness, i.e., the presence of replicable virus. As the number of tests conducted increased, persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity by RT-PCR in some individuals led to concerns over quarantine guidelines. To this end, we attempted to design an assay that reduces the frequency of positive test results from individuals who do not shed culturable virus. We describe multiplex quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays that detect genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) species of SARS-CoV-2, including spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), envelope (E), and ORF8. The absolute copy number of each RNA target was determined in longitudinal specimens from a household transmission study. Calculated viral RNA levels over the 14-day follow up period were compared with antigen testing and self-reported symptoms to characterize the clinical and molecular dynamics of infection and infer predictive values of these qRT-PCR assays relative to culture isolation. When detection of sgS RNA was added to the CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel, we found a qRT-PCR positive result was 98% predictive of a positive culture (negative predictive value was 94%). Our findings suggest sgRNA presence correlates with active infection, may help identify individuals shedding culturable virus, and that similar multiplex assays can be adapted to current and future variants.

Eye ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ariel Yuhan Ong ◽  
Axelle Rigaudy ◽  
Shafak Toufeeq ◽  
Julian Robins ◽  
Zaid Shalchi ◽  

Abstract Background To evaluate the characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Methods Patients presenting with acute postoperative endophthalmitis between January 2017 to December 2019 were identified from hospital records in this multicentre retrospective cohort study. Clinical records were reviewed for visual acuity (VA) at various timepoints, cause of endophthalmitis, microbiological results, treatments and complications. Results Forty-six eyes of 46 patients were included. Intravitreal injections were the leading cause of acute postoperative endophthalmitis (n = 29; 63%), followed by cataract surgery (n = 8; 17%), vitreoretinal surgery (n = 7; 15%), and secondary intraocular lens insertion (n = 2, 4%). The absolute risk of endophthalmitis was 0.024% (1:4132) for intravitreal injections, 0.016% (1:6096) for cataract surgery, and 0.072% (1:1385) for vitreoretinal surgery. The majority of patients (n = 38; 83%) had better VA at 6 months compared to presentation, although fewer (n = 13; 28%) maintained similar or better VA compared to before the precipitating surgery. Twenty-four cases yielded positive culture results, of which staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly isolated organism. Microbiological yield was not associated with better final visual outcomes. Patients who underwent therapeutic vitrectomy (n = 15; 33%) had poorer VA at presentation, but subsequently achieved visual outcomes comparable to those who received medical treatment alone. There was no difference in time to presentation, visual outcome and retinal detachment rates among the different causative procedures. Conclusion Intravitreal injections were the most common cause of endophthalmitis in our region, primarily because of their higher frequency compared to other intraocular procedures. In this cohort, the primary procedure had no effect on presentation, management or visual outcomes.

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