instrument choice
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Heather M. Macdonald ◽  
Stéphanie K. Lavigne ◽  
Andrew E. Reineberg ◽  
Michael H. Thaut

ObjectivesDuring their lifetimes, a majority of musicians experience playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). PRMD prevalence is tied to instrument choice, yet most studies examine heterogeneous groups of musicians, leaving some high-risk groups such as oboists understudied. This paper aims to (1) ascertain the prevalence and nature of PRMDs in oboists, (2) determine relevant risk factors, and (3) evaluate the efficacy of treatment methods in preventing and remedying injuries in oboe players.MethodsA 10-question online questionnaire on PRMDs and their treatments was completed by 223 oboists. PRMDs were compared across gender, weekly playing hours, career level, age, and years of playing experience.ResultsOf all respondents, 74.9% (167/223) reported having had at least one PRMD in their lifetime. A majority of these injuries (61.9% of all respondents) were of moderate to extreme severity (5 or higher on a scale of 1 to 10). Females (mean = 5.88) reported significantly more severe injuries than males. No significant effects of career level (i.e., professional vs. student vs. amateur), age, or years of playing experience were observed. We found significant non-linear relationships between weekly playing hours and PRMD prevalence and severity. Injuries were most commonly on the right side of the body, with the right thumb, wrist, hand, and forearm being most affected in frequency and severity. Of those injuries for which recovery information was provided, only 26.1% of injuries were “completely recovered.” The perceived effectiveness of a few treatments (physical therapy, rest, stretching, occupational therapy, massage) tended to be ranked more highly than others.ConclusionThe oboists in this study experienced high rates of PRMD, particularly in the right upper extremities. Females and those playing 7-9 and 16-18 h per week reported a significantly higher severity of injuries than other groups.

Jia Jun Fung ◽  
Karla Blöcher-Juárez ◽  
Anton Khmelinskii

AbstractTandem fluorescent protein timers (tFTs) are versatile reporters of protein dynamics. A tFT consists of two fluorescent proteins with different maturation kinetics and provides a ratiometric readout of protein age, which can be exploited to follow intracellular trafficking, inheritance and turnover of tFT-tagged proteins. Here, we detail a protocol for high-throughput analysis of protein turnover with tFTs in yeast using fluorescence measurements of ordered colony arrays. We describe guidelines on optimization of experimental design with regard to the layout of colony arrays, growth conditions, and instrument choice. Combined with semi-automated genetic crossing using synthetic genetic array (SGA) methodology and high-throughput protein tagging with SWAp-Tag (SWAT) libraries, this approach can be used to compare protein turnover across the proteome and to identify regulators of protein turnover genome-wide.

Driesen David M

This chapter addresses the problem of choosing environmental law instruments in international environmental law. It begins with a discussion of the various environmental protection instruments, such as environmental benefit trading, pollution taxes, subsidies, and traditional regulation. The chapter suggests that, for the most part, international environmental law has left the choice between traditional regulation and market-based instruments to nation-states. Efforts to create new international environmental law focus more upon forging agreement about goals than on how to achieve goals, since states play such a huge role in implementation and countries can achieve any given goal in a variety of ways. But some devices, which some experts treat as environmental instruments—such as subsidies, liability, and trade sanctions—more often become part of international environmental law. The chapter then discusses the extent to which the desire for international environmental benefit trading has driven a departure from the norm of leaving the choice between market mechanisms and traditional standards to implementing polities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-80
Ignatius Soni Kurniawan ◽  
Mugi Harsono

As an organizational asset, employees have an important role in the success of the organization. How to bring up employees who feel supported by the organization and follow the norms of reciprocity with a feeling of obligation to make positive efforts for the organization is the aim of the discussion in this article. The contribution of the article arises from the urgency to provide an explanation of the mechanism that underlies the theory of Perceived Organization Support (POS) for novice researchers in linking the antecedents and consequences of POS. The managerial implication leads to the role of the manager to start by first showing support to his employees in order to move the norm of individual reciprocity to be able to enjoy the utility of POS which includes direct benefits for the welfare of individuals and organizations. Variations of POS measurement items are also discussed to provide recommendations for instrument choice among alternatives. Future POS researchers can take a look at trends in POS-related businesses such as worker collaboration, changes in individual-organizational relationships, and across cultures.

2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-64 ◽  
Jan Börner ◽  
Dario Schulz ◽  
Sven Wunder ◽  
Alexander Pfaff

The world's forests provide valuable contributions to people but continue to be threatened by agricultural expansion and other land uses. Counterfactual-based methods are increasingly used to evaluate forest conservation initiatives. This review synthesizes recent studies quantifying the impacts of such policies and programs. Extending past reviews focused on instrument choice, design, and implementation, our theory of change explicitly acknowledges context. Screening over 60,000 abstracts yielded 136 comparable normalized effect sizes (Cohen's d). Comparing across instrument categories, evaluation methods, and contexts suggests not only a lack of “silver bullets” in the conservation toolbox, but that effectiveness is also moderate on average. Yet context is critical. Many interventions in our sample were implemented in “bullet-proof” contexts of low pressure on natural resources. This greatly limits their potential impacts and suggests the need to invest further not only in understanding but also in better aligning conservation with local and global development goals.

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