cancer diagnostics
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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Premanshu Kumar Singh ◽  
Aarti Patel ◽  
Anastasia Kaffenes ◽  
Catherine Hord ◽  
Delaney Kesterson ◽  

Advances in cancer research over the past half-century have clearly determined the molecular origins of the disease. Central to the use of molecular signatures for continued progress, including rapid, reliable, and early diagnosis is the use of biomarkers. Specifically, extracellular vesicles as biomarker cargo holders have generated significant interest. However, the isolation, purification, and subsequent analysis of these extracellular vesicles remain a challenge. Technological advances driven by microfluidics-enabled devices have made the challenges for isolation of extracellular vesicles an emerging area of research with significant possibilities for use in clinical settings enabling point-of-care diagnostics for cancer. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the existing microfluidic technologies for cancer diagnostics with a focus on extracellular vesicle isolation methods.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 204
María Gabriela Montiel Schneider ◽  
María Julia Martín ◽  
Jessica Otarola ◽  
Ekaterina Vakarelska ◽  
Vasil Simeonov ◽  

The enormous development of nanomaterials technology and the immediate response of many areas of science, research, and practice to their possible application has led to the publication of thousands of scientific papers, books, and reports. This vast amount of information requires careful classification and order, especially for specifically targeted practical needs. Therefore, the present review aims to summarize to some extent the role of iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical research. Summarizing the fundamental properties of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, the review’s next focus was to classify research studies related to applying these particles for cancer diagnostics and therapy (similar to photothermal therapy, hyperthermia), in nano theranostics, multimodal therapy. Special attention is paid to research studies dealing with the opportunities of combining different nanomaterials to achieve optimal systems for biomedical application. In this regard, original data about the synthesis and characterization of nanolipidic magnetic hybrid systems are included as an example. The last section of the review is dedicated to the capacities of magnetite-based magnetic nanoparticles for the management of oncological diseases.

Ryan Charles Pink ◽  
Ellie-May Beaman ◽  
Priya Samuel ◽  
Susan Ann Brooks ◽  
David Raul Francisco Carter

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 277
Zuzanna Anna Magnuska ◽  
Benjamin Theek ◽  
Milita Darguzyte ◽  
Moritz Palmowski ◽  
Elmar Stickeler ◽  

Automation of medical data analysis is an important topic in modern cancer diagnostics, aiming at robust and reproducible workflows. Therefore, we used a dataset of breast US images (252 malignant and 253 benign cases) to realize and compare different strategies for CAD support in lesion detection and classification. Eight different datasets (including pre-processed and spatially augmented images) were prepared, and machine learning algorithms (i.e., Viola–Jones; YOLOv3) were trained for lesion detection. The radiomics signature (RS) was derived from detection boxes and compared with RS derived from manually obtained segments. Finally, the classification model was established and evaluated concerning accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. After training on a dataset including logarithmic derivatives of US images, we found that YOLOv3 obtains better results in breast lesion detection (IoU: 0.544 ± 0.081; LE: 0.171 ± 0.009) than the Viola–Jones framework (IoU: 0.399 ± 0.054; LE: 0.096 ± 0.016). Interestingly, our findings show that the classification model trained with RS derived from detection boxes and the model based on the RS derived from a gold standard manual segmentation are comparable (p-value = 0.071). Thus, deriving radiomics signatures from the detection box is a promising technique for building a breast lesion classification model, and may reduce the need for the lesion segmentation step in the future design of CAD systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Susanne Gerber ◽  
Lukas Pospisil ◽  
Stanislav Sys ◽  
Charlotte Hewel ◽  
Ali Torkamani ◽  

Mislabeling of cases as well as controls in case–control studies is a frequent source of strong bias in prognostic and diagnostic tests and algorithms. Common data processing methods available to the researchers in the biomedical community do not allow for consistent and robust treatment of labeled data in the situations where both, the case and the control groups, contain a non-negligible proportion of mislabeled data instances. This is an especially prominent issue in studies regarding late-onset conditions, where individuals who may convert to cases may populate the control group, and for screening studies that often have high false-positive/-negative rates. To address this problem, we propose a method for a simultaneous robust inference of Lasso reduced discriminative models and of latent group-specific mislabeling risks, not requiring any exactly labeled data. We apply it to a standard breast cancer imaging dataset and infer the mislabeling probabilities (being rates of false-negative and false-positive core-needle biopsies) together with a small set of simple diagnostic rules, outperforming the state-of-the-art BI-RADS diagnostics on these data. The inferred mislabeling rates for breast cancer biopsies agree with the published purely empirical studies. Applying the method to human genomic data from a healthy-ageing cohort reveals a previously unreported compact combination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are strongly associated with a healthy-ageing phenotype for Caucasians. It determines that 7.5% of Caucasians in the 1000 Genomes dataset (selected as a control group) carry a pattern characteristic of healthy ageing.

2022 ◽  
pp. 27-45
Niladri Mukherjee ◽  
Niloy Chatterjee ◽  
Krishnendu Manna ◽  
Krishna Das Saha

2022 ◽  
Neha Paddillaya ◽  
Kalyani Ingale ◽  
Chaitanya Gaikwad ◽  
Deepak Kumar Saini ◽  
Pramod A Pullarkat ◽  

The adhesion of cells to substrates occurs via integrin clustering and binding to the actin cytoskeleton. Oncogenes modify anchorage-dependent mechanisms in cells during cancer progression. Fluid shear devices provide a label-free, non-invasive way to characterize cell-substrate interactions and heterogeneities in the cell populations. We quantified the critical adhesion strengths of MCF7, MDAMB-231, A549, HPL1D, HeLa, and NIH3T3 cells using a custom fluid shear device. The detachment response was sigmoidal for each cell type. A549 and MDAMB-231 cells had significantly lower adhesion strengths at τ50 than their non-invasive counterparts, HPL1D and MCF7. Detachment dynamics was inversely correlated with cell invasion potentials. A theoretical model, based on τ50 values and the distribution of cell areas on substrates, provided good fits to data from de-adhesion experiments. Quantification of cell tractions, using the Reg-FTTC method on 10 kPa polyacrylamide gels, showed highest values for invasive, MDAMB-231 and A549, cells compared to non-invasive cells. Immunofluorescence studies show differences in vinculin distributions: non-invasive cells have distinct vinculin puncta, whereas invasive cells have more dispersed distributions. The cytoskeleton in non-invasive cells was devoid of well-developed stress fibers, and had thicker cortical actin bundles in the boundary. These correlations in adhesion strengths with cell invasiveness, demonstrated here, may be useful in cancer diagnostics and other pathologies featuring misregulation in adhesion.

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