diastolic hypertension
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Aayush Visaria ◽  
David Lo ◽  
Pranay Maniar ◽  
Bhoomi Dave ◽  
Parag Joshi

Abstract Background We sought to determine the association between appendicular adiposity and hypertension, with the purpose of better understanding the role of body fat distribution on blood pressure (BP). Methods We included 7411 adults aged 20 to 59 who were not taking antihypertensives and without cardiovascular disease from the 2011 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leg & arm adiposity, determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, was defined as percent of total body fat present in legs/arms (leg/total%, arm/total%). Measures were categorized into sex-specific tertiles. We estimated change in BP and odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80) and hypertension subtypes using multivariable, survey design-adjusted linear & logistic regression, respectively. Results Of the participants, 49% were female, the average (standard deviation) age was 37.4 (0.3) years, and 24% had hypertension. Those in the highest tertile (T3) of leg/total% had 30% decreased adjusted ORs (aOR) of hypertension compared to the lowest tertile (T1; aOR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.55–0.89). This association was not significant for arm/total% (0.89, 0.68–1.17). T3 of leg/total% was associated with 49% lower, 41% lower, and unchanged relative odds of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH), and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) compared to T1 (IDH: 0.51, 0.37–0.70; SDH: 0.59, 0.43–0.80; ISH: 1.06, 0.70–1.59). For every 10% increase in leg/total%, diastolic BP decreased by an adjusted mean 3.5 mmHg (95% CI, − 4.8 to − 2.2) in males and 1.8 mmHg (95% CI, − 2.8 to − 0.8) in females (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusions A greater proportional distribution of fat around the legs is inversely, independently associated with hypertension, and more specifically, diastolic hypertension (IDH and SDH).

2022 ◽  
pp. 140349482110640
Mia Söderberg ◽  
Helena Eriksson ◽  
Kjell Torén ◽  
Göran Bergström ◽  
Eva Andersson ◽  

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychosocial work exposure and the presence of biological and imaging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-cohort of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Psychosocial exposure was evaluated with the job demand–control model, and analysed according to the standard categorization: high strain, active, passive and low strain (reference). Biomarkers (blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, coronary artery calcification (CAC) and metabolic syndrome) were measured, or derived through measurements, from clinical examinations. Gender-specific prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with regression models and adjusted for age, education, smoking, physical activity, general life stress and body mass index (BMI). Results: The analyses included 3882 participants (52.5% women). High strain (high demands–low control) was linked to increased PR for low HDL cholesterol in women, adjusted for all covariates (PR 1.76; 95% CI 1.25–2.48). High strain was also related to moderately increased PR for metabolic syndrome in men, after adjustments for all covariates except BMI (PR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.52). In addition, passive work (low demands–low control) was associated with diastolic hypertension in women (fully adjusted: PR 1.29; 95% CI 1.05–1.59). All relationships between psychosocial factors and LDL cholesterol or CAC (both genders), or hypertension (men), were non-significant. Conclusions: Poor psychosocial job conditions was associated with the presence of low HDL cholesterol and diastolic hypertension in women, and metabolic syndrome in men. These findings contribute to the knowledge of potential pathways between stressful work and coronary heart disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Su-Fen Qi ◽  
Ya-Jing Cao ◽  
Hui-Jun Wang ◽  
Bing Zhang ◽  
Jing Yan ◽  

Background: The effects of carbohydrate intake on hypertension (HTN) subtypes are scarce. We examined the association of carbohydrate intake with new-onset HTN subtypes in Chinese adults.Methods: Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2000–2011, 22,418 individuals were recorded using a 24-h recall method over three consecutive days. We excluded those who were pregnant women, lactating mothers, age &lt;18 years, baseline age, blood pressure, and energy intake deficiency, extreme energy intake (male &gt; 6,000 kcal or &lt; 800 kcal; female &gt; 4,000 kcal or &lt; 600 kcal), and pulse pressure difference (Systolic Blood Pressure [SBP] - Diastolic Blood Pressure [DBP]) &lt;10 mm Hg, HTN at baseline and data from only one survey. The total number of subjects who participated in at least two surveys was 7,930. The main outcome was new-onset HTN subtypes over 6.9 person years of follow-up.Results: 2,521 participants were found to be HTN, which included 1,318 males (52.3%), 1,203 females (47.7%), 721 had systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH, 28.6%), 655 had isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, 26.0%), and 993 had isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, 39.4%). Compared with extreme quintiles of carbohydrate, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for new-onset HTN, SDH, ISH and IDH associated with carbohydrate intake were 1.12 (0.97–1.30), 1.54 (1.18–2.00), 0.89 (0.67–1.19) and 1.15 (0.91–1.45), respectively. The HR of SDH compared with extreme quintiles of carbohydrates was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.08–2.25; Ptrend = 0.04) in men and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.02–2.26; Ptrend = 0.02) in women.Conclusion: Carbohydrates were related to a higher risk of SDH, which were not observed with HTN, ISH, and IDH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mingyan Huang ◽  
Linzi Long ◽  
Ling Tan ◽  
Aling Shen ◽  
Mi Deng ◽  

Background: The association between isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) and cardiovascular events has been inconsistently reported. This meta-analysis of cohort studies was designed to investigate the effect of the 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) definition of IDH on the risk of composite cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and all strokes including ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS).Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched from inception to July 6, 2021. Cohort studies that investigated the association between IDH and cardiovascular events risk, compared to normotension, were included. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects models and heterogeneity was evaluated using Q-test and I2 statistic. The robustness of the associations was identified using sensitivity analysis. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot, trim-and-fill method, Begg's test, and Egger's test.Results: A total of 15 cohort studies (13 articles) including 489,814 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The follow-up period ranged from 4.3 to 29 years. IDH was significantly associated with an increased risk of composite cardiovascular events (HR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07–1.52, p = 0.006), cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.07–1.95, p = 0.015), all strokes (HR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04–2.01, p = 0.03), and HS (HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.18–2.29, p = 0.164), but not associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.20, 95% CI: 0.97–1.47, p = 0.087) and IS (HR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.87–2.81, p = 0.137). Subgroup analysis further indicated that IDH in the younger patients (mean age ≤ 55 years) and from Asia were significantly associated with an increased risk of composite cardiovascular events, while the elderly patients (mean age ≥ 55 years), Americans, and Europeans were not significantly associated with an increased risk of composite cardiovascular events.Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence that IDH defined using the 2018 ESC criterion is significantly associated with an increased risk of composite cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, all strokes and HS, but not significantly associated with all-cause death and IS. These findings also emphasize the importance for patients with IDH to have their blood pressure within normal, especially in the young adults and Asians.Trial Registration: PROSPERO, Identifier: CRD42021254108.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qianqian Wang ◽  
Ping Qu ◽  
Jingyu Chen ◽  
Xian Tang ◽  
Guang Hao ◽  

Background: Childhood blood pressure is a marker for cardiovascular disease risk later in life. Few studies examined the association between physical activity (PA) and hypertension in Chinese children, and this study aimed to explore this relationship.Methods: A cross-sectional study among pupils was conducted in Chongqing in 2014. In total, 15,203 children aged 6–12 years in Chongqing were included in this study. The duration of self-reported PA on school days and the weekend in pupils were collected with a standardized questionnaire.Results: The results showed that, on school days, only 22.3% of boys and 17.8% of girls engaged in more than 60 min of PA per day; while on the weekend, only 38.5% of boys and 32.0% of girls engaged in at least 60 min of PA per day. There was no strong evidence for an association between PA and systolic or diastolic hypertension in boys. However, in girls, a weak negative association between PA on weekdays and hypertension was observed, and there was a significant interactive effect of PA and obesity on hypertension risk (Pfor interaction = 0.042). In obese children, PA was positively related to the risk of hypertension.Conclusion: The overall level of PA among pupils in Chongqing was insufficient, and a weak negative relationship between PA and hypertension was found in girls.

Hongmei Kang ◽  
Saade Abdalkareem Jasimm ◽  
Shahab Naghdi Sedeh ◽  
Olesya Viktorovna Dudnik ◽  
Davood Toghraie ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
Rufina N. B. Ayogu ◽  
Mmesoma G. Ezeh ◽  
Adaobi M. Okafor

Abstract Background Hypertension, a major cardiovascular disease risk factor exists several years without symptoms. Few data exist on prevalence and predictors of hypertension among apparently healthy Nigerian adults. This makes it difficult for policy-makers to concentrate efforts to control emerging health burden of the disease. This study assessed prevalence and predictors of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (CSDH). Methods Cross-sectional survey design was employed in the study of 517 adult participants (20–60 years) in a rural setting. Selection of the respondents was through multistage sampling which involved systematic, proportionate and simple random sampling. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were collected. Frequencies, T-test, analysis of variance and Chi square were used in statistical analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate variables associated with different patterns of hypertension with significance accepted at P < 0.05. Frequencies, percentages, crude and adjusted odd ratios were reported. Statistical Product and Service Solutions version 21.0 was used in statistical analysis. Results ISH (10.6%), IDH (18.2%) and CSDH (37.8%) were observed among the participants. ISH was less likely among 20–29 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) = 0.13–0.94), 30–39 year-olds (aOR = 0.30, 95% C.I. = 0.11–0.82) and those with abdominal obesity (aOR = 0.12, 95% C.I. = 0.03–0.56). Participants who perceived their health status as good (aOR = 3.80, 95% C.I. = 1.29–11.18) and excellent (aOR = 5.28, 95% C.I. = 1.54–18.07) were respectively 3.80 and 5.28 times more likely to have ISH. Those with secondary education had significantly higher likelihood for IDH (aOR = 2.05, 95% = 1.02–4.14) whereas self-perceived poor health status (aOR = 0.24, 95% C.I. = 0.09–0.65), absence of obesity (aOR = 0.10, 95% C.I. = 0.01–0.81) and general obesity (aOR = 0.35, 95% C.I. = 0.17–0.72) were associated with reduced risk for IDH. Secondary (aOR = 0.60, 95% C.I. = 0.36–0.99) and tertiary (aOR = 0.49, 95% C.I. = 0.28–0.85) education were associated with reduced risk for CSDH but combined obesity (aOR = 4.39, 95% C.I. = 2.25–8.58) increased the risk for CSDH by 4. Conclusion ISH, IDH and CSDH were problems among the adults with age, obesity, self-perception of good/excellent health status and low education level as significant predictors. Health and nutrition education to prevent comorbidities and cerebrovascular accidents are recommended.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
Cesar A. Romero ◽  
Aldo H. Tabares ◽  
Marcelo Orias

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