cell formation
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
G.R. Felicio ◽  
J.G. Cordeiro ◽  
B.P. Dutra-Costa ◽  
C. Maximino ◽  
G.S. Branco ◽  

Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters’ turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens’ present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
Sanuja Fernando ◽  
Thalia Salagaras ◽  
Nisha Schwarz ◽  
Lauren Sandeman ◽  
Joanne T. M. Tan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Wenli Yang ◽  
William G Robichaux ◽  
Fang C Mei ◽  
Wel Lin ◽  
Li Li ◽  

Protein SUMOylation plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis when cells are under stress. However, precisely how SUMOylation is regulated, and a molecular mechanism linking cellular stress to SUMOylation remains elusive. Herein, we report that cAMP, a major stress-response second messenger, acts through Epac1 as a regulator of cellular SUMOylation. The Epac1-associated proteome is highly enriched with components of the SUMOylation pathway. Activation of Epac1 by intracellular cAMP triggers phase separation and the formation of nuclear condensates containing Epac1 and general components of the SUMOylation machinery to promote cellular SUMOylation. Furthermore, genetic knockout of Epac1 obliterates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced cellular SUMOylation in macrophages, leading to suppression of foam cell formation. These results provide a direct nexus connecting two major cellular stress responses to define a molecular mechanism in which cAMP regulates the dynamics of cellular condensates to modulate protein SUMOylation.

R. Jyothi Priya ◽  
Ganne Venkata Sudhakar Rao ◽  
N. Pazhanivel ◽  
K. Vijayarani ◽  
T. Lurthu Reetha ◽  

Background: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important viral respiratory disease in poultry. Recently, re-emergence of Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has been reported in several countries including India. The current study aimed to evaluate the poultry flocks of Tamil Nadu with circulating GaHV-1 and to elucidate the origin of the virus involved in the outbreak. Methods: In this study, a molecular based survey on the overall occurrence of natural cases of Infectious laryngo-tracheitis in poultry flocks from Tamil Nadu, India were performed. Pathological findings in respiratory and secondary lymphoid organs like caecal tonsils and harderian gland was carried out. The PCR technique targeting Infected Cell Protein-4 (ICP4) gene along with molecular characterization was performed. Result: The overall prevalence rate in the outbreak was 42.86% with highest incidence in layer flocks (62.85%) than the broiler flocks (22.85%). The highest susceptible age groups were between 20-30 weeks old. Tracheal pathology revealed epithelial sloughing, syncytial cell formation, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and heterophilic exudation microscopically. Partial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of ICP4 gene revealed high genetic homology between field isolates and the virulent strains from Turkey, Germany, China and Brazil. In the present study, along with pathological findings, a rapid and sensitive PCR assay was used for detection of ILT virus specific ICP4 gene in commercial poultry farms in the region.

Sanjiv Singh ◽  
Senti Changkija ◽  
Rajat Mudgal ◽  
V. Ravichandiran

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yuliang Gao ◽  
Fahong Qiao ◽  
Jingyuan You ◽  
Zengying Ren ◽  
Nan Li ◽  

AbstractExtra-terrestrial explorations require electrochemical energy storage devices able to operate in gravity conditions different from those of planet earth. In this context, lithium (Li)-based batteries have not been fully investigated, especially cell formation and cycling performances under supergravity (i.e., gravity > 9.8 m s−2) conditions. To shed some light on these aspects, here, we investigate the behavior of non-aqueous Li metal cells under supergravity conditions. The physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations reveal that, distinctly from earth gravity conditions, smooth and dense Li metal depositions are obtained under supergravity during Li metal deposition on a Cu substrate. Moreover, supergravity allows the formation of an inorganic-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) due to the strong interactions between Li+ and salt anions, which promote significant decomposition of the anions on the negative electrode surface. Tests in full Li metal pouch cell configuration (using LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2-based positive electrode and LiFSI-based electrolyte solution) also demonstrate the favorable effect of the supergravity in terms of deposition morphology and SEI composition and ability to carry out 200 cycles at 2 C (400 mA g−1) rate with a capacity retention of 96%.

2022 ◽  
Ramiro Tomasina ◽  
Érica S Martins-Duarte ◽  
Philippe Bastin ◽  
Mathieu Gissot ◽  
Maria E Francia

Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing center of the cell. They are normally formed by two centrioles, embedded in a cloud of proteins known as pericentriolar material. The PCM ascribes centrioles with their microtubule nucleation capacity. Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, divides by endodyogeny. Successful cell division is critical for pathogenesis. The centrosome, plays central roles in orchestrating the temporal and physical coordination of major organelle segregation and daughter cell formation. The T. gondii centrosome is formed by two domains; an outer core, distal from the nucleus, and an inner core, proximal to the nucleus. This dual organization has been proposed to underlie T. gondii’s cell division plasticity. However, the role of the inner core remains undeciphered. Here, we focus on the role of its only known molecular marker; TgCEP250L1. We show that upon conditional degradation of TgCEP250L1, parasites exhibit nuclear segregation defects, whilst normally forming daughter cells. In addition, the centrioles, disconnect from the nucleus. We explore the structural defects underlying these phenotypes by high resolution microscopy. We show that TgCEP250L1’s location is dynamic and encompasses the formation of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, we show that in the absence of TgCEP250L1, the microtubule binding protein TgEB1, fails to translocate from the nucleus to the mitotic spindle, while polyploid nuclei accumulate. Overall, our data supports a model in which the inner core of the T. gondii centrosome critically participates in cell division by directly impacting the formation or stability of the mitotic spindle.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 334
Ji-Eun Kim ◽  
Jin-Sun Kim ◽  
Min-Jee Jo ◽  
Eunjung Cho ◽  
Shin-Young Ahn ◽  

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic indicators that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Visceral obesity and factors derived from altered adipose tissue, adipokines, play critical roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Although the adipokines leptin and adiponectin improve insulin sensitivity, others contribute to the development of glucose intolerance, including visfatin, fetuin-A, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leptin and adiponectin increase fatty acid oxidation, prevent foam cell formation, and improve lipid metabolism, while visfatin, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and resistin have pro-atherogenic properties. In this review, we briefly summarize the role of various adipokines in the development of metabolic syndrome, focusing on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 562
Xiang Ji ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Feng Wu ◽  
Yu Cen ◽  
Lan Ma

Atherosclerosis and related complications are the most common causes of death in modern societies. Macrophage-derived foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Effective, rapid, and instrument-independent detection in the early stage of chronic atherosclerosis progression could provide an opportunity for early intervention and treatment. Therefore, as a starting point, in this study, we aimed to isolate and prepare foam cell-specific polypeptides using a phage display platform. The six target polypeptides, which were acquired in this study, were evaluated by ELISA and showed strong specificity with foam cells. Streptavidin coupled quantum dots (QDs) were used as fluorescence developing agents, and images of biotin-modified polypeptides specifically binding with foam cells were clearly observed. The polypeptides obtained in this study could lay the foundation for developing a rapid detection kit for early atherosclerosis lesions and could provide new materials for research on the mechanisms of foam cell formation and the development of blocking drugs.

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