elongation factor 2
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2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
Sanuja Fernando ◽  
Thalia Salagaras ◽  
Nisha Schwarz ◽  
Lauren Sandeman ◽  
Joanne T. M. Tan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Melvin Pan ◽  
Christiane Zorbas ◽  
Maki Sugaya ◽  
Kensuke Ishiguro ◽  
Miki Kato ◽  

SummaryRibosome biogenesis involves the processing of precursor ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) and sequential assembly with ribosomal proteins. Here we report that nutrient deprivation severely impairs pre-rRNA processing and leads to the accumulation of unprocessed rRNAs. Upon nutrient restoration, the accumulated pre-rRNAs are processed into mature rRNAs that are utilized for ribosome biogenesis. Failure to accumulate pre-rRNAs under nutrient deprivation leads to perturbed ribosome assembly during nutrient restoration and subsequent apoptosis via uL5/uL18-mediated activation of p53. Restoration of glutamine alone activates p53 by triggering uL5/uL18 translation. Induction of uL5/uL18 protein synthesis by glutamine was dependent on the translation factor eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which was in turn dependent on Raf/MEK/ERK signalling. Depriving cells of glutamine prevents the activation of p53 by rRNA synthesis inhibitors. Our data reveals a mechanism that cancer cells can exploit to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis during fluctuations in environmental nutrient availability.

Nature ◽  
2021 ◽  
Muminjon Djumagulov ◽  
Natalia Demeshkina ◽  
Lasse Jenner ◽  
Alexey Rozov ◽  
Marat Yusupov ◽  

AbstractTranslation of the genetic code into proteins is realized through repetitions of synchronous translocation of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNA) through the ribosome. In eukaryotes translocation is ensured by elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which catalyses the process and actively contributes to its accuracy1. Although numerous studies point to critical roles for both the conserved eukaryotic posttranslational modification diphthamide in eEF2 and tRNA modifications in supporting the accuracy of translocation, detailed molecular mechanisms describing their specific functions are poorly understood. Here we report a high-resolution X-ray structure of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome in a translocation-intermediate state containing mRNA, naturally modified eEF2 and tRNAs. The crystal structure reveals a network of stabilization of codon–anticodon interactions involving diphthamide1 and the hypermodified nucleoside wybutosine at position 37 of phenylalanine tRNA, which is also known to enhance translation accuracy2. The model demonstrates how the decoding centre releases a codon–anticodon duplex, allowing its movement on the ribosome, and emphasizes the function of eEF2 as a ‘pawl’ defining the directionality of translocation3. This model suggests how eukaryote-specific elements of the 80S ribosome, eEF2 and tRNAs undergo large-scale molecular reorganizations to ensure maintenance of the mRNA reading frame during the complex process of translocation.

Shiyou Liu ◽  
Tsubasa S. Matsui ◽  
Na Kang ◽  
Shinji Deguchi

Stress fibers (SFs), which are actomyosin structures, reorganize in response to various cues to maintain cellular homeostasis. Currently, the protein components of SFs are only partially identified, limiting our understanding of their responses. Here we isolate SFs from human fibroblasts HFF-1 to determine with proteomic analysis the whole protein components and how they change with replicative senescence (RS), a state where cells decline in ability to replicate after repeated divisions. We found that at least 135 proteins are associated with SFs, and 63 of them are upregulated with RS, by which SFs become larger in size. Among them, we focused on eEF2 (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2) as it exhibited upon RS the most significant increase in abundance. We show that eEF2 is critical to the reorganization and stabilization of SFs in senescent fibroblasts. Our findings provide a novel molecular basis for SFs to be reinforced to resist cellular senescence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Sang Ho Yoon ◽  
Woo Seok Song ◽  
Sung Pyo Oh ◽  
Young Sook Kim ◽  
Myoung-Hwan Kim

AbstractAssessment of neural activity in the specific brain area is critical for understanding the circuit mechanisms underlying altered brain function and behaviors. A number of immediate early genes (IEGs) that are rapidly transcribed in neuronal cells in response to synaptic activity have been used as markers for neuronal activity. However, protein detection of IEGs requires translation, and the amount of newly synthesized gene product is usually insufficient to detect using western blotting, limiting their utility in western blot analysis of brain tissues for comparison of basal activity between control and genetically modified animals. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) rapidly changes in response to synaptic and neural activities. Intraperitoneal injections of the GABA A receptor (GABAAR) antagonist picrotoxin and the glycine receptor antagonist brucine rapidly dephosphorylated eEF2. Conversely, potentiation of GABAARs or inhibition of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) induced rapid phosphorylation of eEF2 in both the hippocampus and forebrain of mice. Chemogenetic suppression of hippocampal principal neuron activity promoted eEF2 phosphorylation. Novel context exploration and acute restraint stress rapidly modified the phosphorylation status of hippocampal eEF2. Furthermore, the hippocampal eEF2 phosphorylation levels under basal conditions were reduced in mice exhibiting epilepsy and abnormally enhanced excitability in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Collectively, the results indicated that eEF2 phosphorylation status is sensitive to neural activity and the ratio of phosphorylated eEF2 to total eEF2 could be a molecular signature for estimating neural activity in a specific brain area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (37) ◽  
pp. e2104577118
Yugang Zhang ◽  
Zhewang Lin ◽  
Julia Zhu ◽  
Miao Wang ◽  
Hening Lin

Diphthamide, a modification found only on translation elongation factor 2 (EF2), was proposed to suppress −1 frameshifting in translation. Although diphthamide is conserved among all eukaryotes, exactly what proteins are affected by diphthamide deletion is not clear in cells. Through genome-wide profiling for a potential −1 frameshifting site, we identified that the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)/mammalian TORC1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is affected by deletion of diphthamide. Diphthamide deficiency in yeast suppresses the translation of TORC1-activating proteins Vam6 and Rtc1. Interestingly, TORC1 signaling also promotes diphthamide biosynthesis, suggesting that diphthamide forms a positive feedback loop to promote translation under nutrient-rich conditions. Our results provide an explanation for why diphthamide is evolutionarily conserved and why diphthamide deletion can cause severe developmental defects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Darby J. Ballard ◽  
Hao-Yun Peng ◽  
Jugal Kishore Das ◽  
Anil Kumar ◽  
Liqing Wang ◽  

Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 Kinase (eEF2K) acts as a negative regulator of protein synthesis, translation, and cell growth. As a structurally unique member of the alpha-kinase family, eEF2K is essential to cell survival under stressful conditions, as it contributes to both cell viability and proliferation. Known as the modulator of the global rate of protein translation, eEF2K inhibits eEF2 (eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2) and decreases translation elongation when active. eEF2K is regulated by various mechanisms, including phosphorylation through residues and autophosphorylation. Specifically, this protein kinase is downregulated through the phosphorylation of multiple sites via mTOR signaling and upregulated via the AMPK pathway. eEF2K plays important roles in numerous biological systems, including neurology, cardiology, myology, and immunology. This review provides further insights into the current roles of eEF2K and its potential to be explored as a therapeutic target for drug development.

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