Viral Infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 883
Author(s):  
Annalisa Chianese ◽  
Carla Zannella ◽  
Alessandra Monti ◽  
Anna De Filippis ◽  
Nunzianna Doti ◽  
...  

Viral infections represent a serious threat to the world population and are becoming more frequent. The search and identification of broad-spectrum antiviral molecules is necessary to ensure new therapeutic options, since there is a limited availability of effective antiviral drugs able to eradicate viral infections, and consequently due to the increase of strains that are resistant to the most used drugs. Recently, several studies on antimicrobial peptides identified them as promising antiviral agents. In detail, amphibian skin secretions serve as a rich source of natural antimicrobial peptides. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities have been widely reported, but their exploitation as potential antiviral agents have yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, the antiviral activity of the peptide derived from the secretion of Rana tagoi, named AR-23, was evaluated against both DNA and RNA viruses, with or without envelope. Different assays were performed to identify in which step of the infectious cycle the peptide could act. AR-23 exhibited a greater inhibitory activity in the early stages of infection against both DNA (HSV-1) and RNA (MeV, HPIV-2, HCoV-229E, and SARS-CoV-2) enveloped viruses and, on the contrary, it was inactive against naked viruses (PV-1). Altogether, the results indicated AR-23 as a peptide with potential therapeutic effects against a wide variety of human viruses.


Zoonoses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhangyan Zhao ◽  
Haicheng Tang ◽  
Feng Li

Background: Every year, approximately 800,000 people die from liver diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Complications outside the liver are common, such as fungal lung infections and viral infections. These complications may be associated with poor immune function, thus making clinical treatment difficult and increasing the risk of death. Therefore, HBV-infection-related liver diseases are worthy of clinical attention and further research. Case summary: We report a case of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in which the patient received entecavir as an anti-HBV treatment after liver dysfunction. During the treatment, the patient was diagnosed with measles and severe viral pneumonia. After comprehensive treatment, including active antiviral medications and mechanical ventilation, the patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusion: HBV infection causes liver damage, affects immune function, and is likely to be associated with viral infections such as measles. Consequently, infections may lead to complications, such as severe viral pneumonia, that endanger patients’ lives. To decrease complications and mortality, better understanding of the disease is necessary to enable early diagnosis.


2022 ◽  
pp. 21-28
Author(s):  
А.М. ОМАРИ ◽  
Т.А. АРЫСТАНОВА

В статье описано современное состояние распространения, переработки и использования солодки в Казахстане. Представлены литературные данные использования компонентов корня солодки в создании лекарственных средств для профилактики и лечения иммунодефицитного состояния при вирусных инфекциях. Обобщены литературные данные о комбинированных препаратах, содержащих экстракт корня солодки, глицирризиновую кислоту. The article describes the current state of distribution, processing and use of licorice in Kazakhstan. The literature data on the use of licorice root components in the creation of medicines for the prevention and treatment of immunodeficiency in viral infections are presented. The literature data on combined preparations containing licorice root extract and glycyrrhizic acid are summarized.


2022 ◽  
pp. 35-38
Author(s):  
А.М. ОМАРИ ◽  
Т.А. АРЫСТАНОВА

Работа посвящена разработке методики количественного определения глицирризина и аскорбиновой кислоты при их совместном присутствии в комбинированном лекарственном препарате в виде саше методом УФ-спектрофотометрии. This paper represents a developed technique for the quantitative determination of a new medicinal composition based on dry licorice extract and ascorbic acid for the prevention and treatment of immunode ciency in viral infections by UV spectrophotometry


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne K. Muehlig ◽  
Sydney Gies ◽  
Tobias B. Huber ◽  
Fabian Braun

Collapsing glomerulopathy represents a special variant of the proteinuric kidney disease focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Histologically, the collapsing form of FSGS (cFSGS) is characterized by segmental or global condensation and obliteration of glomerular capillaries, the appearance of hyperplastic and hypertrophic podocytes and severe tubulointerstitial damage. Clinically, cFSGS patients present with acute kidney injury, nephrotic-range proteinuria and are at a high risk of rapid progression to irreversible kidney failure. cFSGS can be attributed to numerous etiologies, namely, viral infections like HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr-Virus, and parvovirus B19 and also drugs and severe ischemia. Risk variants of the APOL1 gene, predominantly found in people of African descent, increase the risk of developing cFSGS. Patients infected with the new Corona-Virus SARS-CoV-2 display an increased rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) in severe cases of COVID-19. Besides hemodynamic instability, cytokine mediated injury and direct viral entry and infection of renal epithelial cells contributing to AKI, there are emerging reports of cFSGS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients of mainly African ethnicity. The pathogenesis of cFSGS is proposed to be linked with direct viral infection of podocytes, as described for HIV-associated glomerulopathy. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that the systemic inflammatory cascade, activated in acute viral infections like COVID-19, is a major contributor to the impairment of basic cellular functions in podocytes. This mini review will summarize the current knowledge on cFSGS associated with viral infections with a special focus on the influence of systemic immune responses and potential mechanisms propagating the development of cFSGS.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 317
Author(s):  
Anna Regalia ◽  
Matteo Benedetti ◽  
Silvia Malvica ◽  
Carlo Alfieri ◽  
Mariarosaria Campise ◽  
...  

Background: Recently the protective role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) against viral infections has been hypothesized. We evaluated the association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and severity in a cohort of kidney transplanted patients (KTxp). Methods: A total of 61 KTxp with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COV+) were matched with 122 healthy KTxp controls (COV−). Main biochemical parameters at 1, 6, and 12 months before SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. Vitamin D status was considered as the mean of two 25(OH)D measures obtained 6 ± 2 months apart during the last year. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on the need for hospitalization (HOSP+) and death (D+). Results: 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ than in controls [19(12–26) vs. 23(17–31) ng/mL, p = 0.01]. No differences among the other biochemical parameters were found. The SARS-CoV-2 infection discriminative power of 25(OH)D was evaluated by ROC-curve (AUC 0.61, 95% CI 0.5–0.7, p = 0.01). 25(OH)D was not significantly different between HOSP+ and HOSP− [17(8–25) vs. 20(15–26) ng/mL, p = 0.19] and between D+ and D− [14(6–23) vs. 20(14–26) ng/mL, p = 0.22] and had no significant correlation with disease length. Conclusions: During the year preceding the infection, 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ KTxp in comparison with controls matched for demographic features and comorbidities. No significant association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection related outcomes was found.


Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Author(s):  
Hong Guo-Parke ◽  
Dermot Linden ◽  
Sinéad Weldon ◽  
Joseph C. Kidney ◽  
Clifford C. Taggart

COPD is a chronic lung disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible airflow obstruction, and persistent pulmonary inflammation. It has become a global epidemic affecting 10% of the population, and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Respiratory viruses are a primary cause of COPD exacerbations, often leading to secondary bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. COPD patients are more susceptible to viral infections and associated severe disease, leading to accelerated lung function deterioration, hospitalization, and an increased risk of mortality. The airway epithelium plays an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, and orchestrates the innate and adaptive responses of the lung against inhaled and pathogen insults. A healthy airway epithelium acts as the first line of host defense by maintaining barrier integrity and the mucociliary escalator, secreting an array of inflammatory mediators, and initiating an antiviral state through the interferon (IFN) response. The airway epithelium is a major site of viral infection, and the interaction between respiratory viruses and airway epithelial cells activates host defense mechanisms, resulting in rapid virus clearance. As such, the production of IFNs and the activation of IFN signaling cascades directly contributes to host defense against viral infections and subsequent innate and adaptive immunity. However, the COPD airway epithelium exhibits an altered antiviral response, leading to enhanced susceptibility to severe disease and impaired IFN signaling. Despite decades of research, there is no effective antiviral therapy for COPD patients. Herein, we review current insights into understanding the mechanisms of viral evasion and host IFN antiviral defense signaling impairment in COPD airway epithelium. Understanding how antiviral mechanisms operate in COPD exacerbations will facilitate the discovery of potential therapeutic interventions to reduce COPD hospitalization and disease severity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Author(s):  
Abbaraju Krishna Sailaja ◽  
Amand Alekhya

The term “Antiviral agents” has been defined in very wide terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can build either a protective or therapeutic effect to the direct measurable advantage of the virus infected host. Viruses are simple in form which are very tiny germs. They comprise of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viruses cause amicable infectious diseases like common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, avian influenzas, dengue virus and COVID-19. Viral diseases are very complex and are easily spread. Herbs and herbal medicines were the foremost in treating infections from centuries over the world in every civilization. Modern science has narrowed the importance of herbal medicine in the past two centuries. But, the side effects and new varieties of diseases creating challenges to modern science. So, usage of herbal medicines is again attaining interests these days. Herbal products for different treatments have achieved a lot of popularity in the last couple of decades. Thus, discovering novel antiviral drugs is of extremely important and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. There are many herbs which are excellent sources for the antiviral properties to treat viral infections. This review provides the verified data on the herbal substances with antiviral activity, and some of the herbal marketed antiviral agents like CORONIL TABLETS from Patanjali and different companies had made an attempt to treat viral infections in this pandemic situation. Therefore, herbal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sickness by traditional healers in many societies.


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