quantum circuit
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Stuart M. Harwood ◽  
Dimitar Trenev ◽  
Spencer T. Stober ◽  
Panagiotis Barkoutsos ◽  
Tanvi P. Gujarati ◽  

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm for finding the minimum eigenvalue of a Hamiltonian that involves the optimization of a parameterized quantum circuit. Since the resulting optimization problem is in general nonconvex, the method can converge to suboptimal parameter values that do not yield the minimum eigenvalue. In this work, we address this shortcoming by adopting the concept of variational adiabatic quantum computing (VAQC) as a procedure to improve VQE. In VAQC, the ground state of a continuously parameterized Hamiltonian is approximated via a parameterized quantum circuit. We discuss some basic theory of VAQC to motivate the development of a hybrid quantum-classical homotopy continuation method. The proposed method has parallels with a predictor-corrector method for numerical integration of differential equations. While there are theoretical limitations to the procedure, we see in practice that VAQC can successfully find good initial circuit parameters to initialize VQE. We demonstrate this with two examples from quantum chemistry. Through these examples, we provide empirical evidence that VAQC, combined with other techniques (an adaptive termination criteria for the classical optimizer and a variance-based resampling method for the expectation evaluation), can provide more accurate solutions than “plain” VQE, for the same amount of effort.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Alexandru Paler ◽  
Robert Basmadjian

Quantum circuits are difficult to simulate, and their automated optimisation is complex as well. Significant optimisations have been achieved manually (pen and paper) and not by software. This is the first in-depth study on the cost of compiling and optimising large-scale quantum circuits with state-of-the-art quantum software. We propose a hierarchy of cost metrics covering the quantum software stack and use energy as the long-term cost of operating hardware. We are going to quantify optimisation costs by estimating the energy consumed by a CPU doing the quantum circuit optimisation. We use QUANTIFY, a tool based on Google Cirq, to optimise bucket brigade QRAM and multiplication circuits having between 32 and 8,192 qubits. Although our classical optimisation methods have polynomial complexity, we observe that their energy cost grows extremely fast with the number of qubits. We profile the methods and software and provide evidence that there are high constant costs associated to the operations performed during optimisation. The costs are the result of dynamically typed programming languages and the generic data structures used in the background. We conclude that state-of-the-art quantum software frameworks have to massively improve their scalability to be practical for large circuits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
N. Khammassi ◽  
I. Ashraf ◽  
J. V. Someren ◽  
R. Nane ◽  
A. M. Krol ◽  

With the potential of quantum algorithms to solve intractable classical problems, quantum computing is rapidly evolving, and more algorithms are being developed and optimized. Expressing these quantum algorithms using a high-level language and making them executable on a quantum processor while abstracting away hardware details is a challenging task. First, a quantum programming language should provide an intuitive programming interface to describe those algorithms. Then a compiler has to transform the program into a quantum circuit, optimize it, and map it to the target quantum processor respecting the hardware constraints such as the supported quantum operations, the qubit connectivity, and the control electronics limitations. In this article, we propose a quantum programming framework named OpenQL, which includes a high-level quantum programming language and its associated quantum compiler. We present the programming interface of OpenQL, we describe the different layers of the compiler and how we can provide portability over different qubit technologies. Our experiments show that OpenQL allows the execution of the same high-level algorithm on two different qubit technologies, namely superconducting qubits and Si-Spin qubits. Besides the executable code, OpenQL also produces an intermediate quantum assembly code, which is technology independent and can be simulated using the QX simulator.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Sergey Danilin ◽  
João Barbosa ◽  
Michael Farage ◽  
Zimo Zhao ◽  
Xiaobang Shang ◽  

AbstractElectromagnetic filtering is essential for the coherent control, operation and readout of superconducting quantum circuits at milliKelvin temperatures. The suppression of spurious modes around transition frequencies of a few GHz is well understood and mainly achieved by on-chip and package considerations. Noise photons of higher frequencies – beyond the pair-breaking energies – cause decoherence and require spectral engineering before reaching the packaged quantum chip. The external wires that pass into the refrigerator and go down to the quantum circuit provide a direct path for these photons. This article contains quantitative analysis and experimental data for the noise photon flux through coaxial, filtered wiring. The attenuation of the coaxial cable at room temperature and the noise photon flux estimates for typical wiring configurations are provided. Compact cryogenic microwave low-pass filters with CR-110 and Esorb-230 absorptive dielectric fillings are presented along with experimental data at room and cryogenic temperatures up to 70 GHz. Filter cut-off frequencies between 1 to 10 GHz are set by the filter length, and the roll-off is material dependent. The relative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability for the Esorb-230 material in the pair-breaking frequency range of 75 to 110 GHz are measured, and the filter properties in this frequency range are calculated. The estimated dramatic suppression of the noise photon flux due to the filter proves its usefulness for experiments with superconducting quantum systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
David Orrell ◽  
Monireh Houshmand

This paper describes an approach to economics that is inspired by quantum computing, and is motivated by the need to develop a consistent quantum mathematical framework for economics. The traditional neoclassical approach assumes that rational utility-optimisers drive market prices to a stable equilibrium, subject to external perturbations or market failures. While this approach has been highly influential, it has come under increasing criticism following the financial crisis of 2007/8. The quantum approach, in contrast, is inherently probabilistic and dynamic. Decision-makers are described, not by a utility function, but by a propensity function which specifies the probability of transacting. We show how a number of cognitive phenomena such as preference reversal and the disjunction effect can be modelled by using a simple quantum circuit to generate an appropriate propensity function. Conversely, a general propensity function can be quantized, via an entropic force, to incorporate effects such as interference and entanglement that characterise human decision-making. Applications to some common problems and topics in economics and finance, including the use of quantum artificial intelligence, are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 759
Anna M. Krol ◽  
Aritra Sarkar ◽  
Imran Ashraf ◽  
Zaid Al-Ars ◽  
Koen Bertels

Unitary decomposition is a widely used method to map quantum algorithms to an arbitrary set of quantum gates. Efficient implementation of this decomposition allows for the translation of bigger unitary gates into elementary quantum operations, which is key to executing these algorithms on existing quantum computers. The decomposition can be used as an aggressive optimization method for the whole circuit, as well as to test part of an algorithm on a quantum accelerator. For the selection and implementation of the decomposition algorithm, perfect qubits are assumed. We base our decomposition technique on Quantum Shannon Decomposition, which generates O(344n) controlled-not gates for an n-qubit input gate. In addition, we implement optimizations to take advantage of the potential underlying structure in the input or intermediate matrices, as well as to minimize the execution time of the decomposition. Comparing our implementation to Qubiter and the UniversalQCompiler (UQC), we show that our implementation generates circuits that are much shorter than those of Qubiter and not much longer than the UQC. At the same time, it is also up to 10 times as fast as Qubiter and about 500 times as fast as the UQC.

2022 ◽  
Fereshte Shahbeigi ◽  
Mahsa Karimi ◽  
Vahid Karimipour

Abstract Two qubit density matrices which are of X-shape, are a natural generalization of Bell Diagonal States (BDSs) recently simulated on the IBM quantum device. We generalize the previous results and propose a quantum circuit for simulation of a general two qubit X-state, implement it on the same quantum device, and study its entanglement for several values of the extended parameter space. We also show that their X-shape is approximately robust against noisy quantum gates. To further physically motivate this study, we invoke the two-spin Heisenberg XYZ system and show that for a wide class of initial states, it leads to dynamical density matrices which are X-states. Due to the symmetries of this Hamiltonian, we show that by only two qubits, one can simulate the dynamics of this system on the IBM quantum computer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pei-Hua Wang ◽  
Jen-Hao Chen ◽  
Yufeng Jane Tseng

AbstractPharmaceutical patent analysis is the key to product protection for pharmaceutical companies. In patent claims, a Markush structure is a standard chemical structure drawing with variable substituents. Overlaps between apparently dissimilar Markush structures are nearly unrecognizable when the structures span a broad chemical space. We propose a quantum search-based method which performs an exact comparison between two non-enumerated Markush structures with a constraint satisfaction oracle. The quantum circuit is verified with a quantum simulator and the real effect of noise is estimated using a five-qubit superconductivity-based IBM quantum computer. The possibilities of measuring the correct states can be increased by improving the connectivity of the most computation intensive qubits. Depolarizing error is the most influential error. The quantum method to exactly compares two patents is hard to simulate classically and thus creates a quantum advantage in patent analysis.

Yusen Wu ◽  
Jingbo B Wang

Abstract The partition function is an essential quantity in statistical mechanics, and its accurate computation is a key component of any statistical analysis of quantum system and phenomenon. However, for interacting many-body quantum systems, its calculation generally involves summing over an exponential number of terms and can thus quickly grow to be intractable. Accurately and efficiently estimating the partition function of its corresponding system Hamiltonian then becomes the key in solving quantum many-body problems. In this paper we develop a hybrid quantumclassical algorithm to estimate the partition function, utilising a novel Clifford sampling technique. Note that previous works on quantum estimation of partition functions require O(1/ε√∆)-depth quantum circuits [17, 23], where ∆ is the minimum spectral gap of stochastic matrices and ε is the multiplicative error. Our algorithm requires only a shallow O(1)-depth quantum circuit, repeated O(n/ε2) times, to provide a comparable ε approximation. Shallow-depth quantum circuits are considered vitally important for currently available NISQ (Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum) devices.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document