New Journal of Physics
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1367-2630

Author(s):  
Xiongwen Chen ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Ping Wu ◽  
Guanghui Zhou

Abstract We propose an AA-stacked multilayer graphene nanoribbon with two symmetrical armchair edges as a multiple flat-band (FB) material. Using the tight-binding Hamiltonian and Green’s function method, we find that the FBs are complete and merged into many dispersive bands. The FBs cause multiple strongly localized states (SLSs) at the sites of the odd lines in every sublayer and a giant optical absorption (GOA) at energy point 2t, where t is the electronic intralayer hopping energy between two nearest-neighbor sites. By driving an electric field perpendicular to the ribbon plane, the bandgaps of the FBs are tunable. Accordingly, the positions of the SLSs in the energy regime can be shifted. However, the position of the GOA is robust against such field, but its strength exhibits a collapse behavior with a fixed quantization step. On the contrary, by driving an electric field parallel to the ribbon plane, the completeness of FBs is destroyed. Resultantly, the SLSs and GOA are suppressed and even quenched. Therefore, such ribbons may be excellent candidates for the design of the controllable information-transmission and optical-electric nanodevices.


Author(s):  
Viktor Holubec ◽  
Artem Ryabov ◽  
Sarah A. M. Loos ◽  
Klaus Kroy

Abstract Stochastic processes with temporal delay play an important role in science and engineering whenever finite speeds of signal transmission and processing occur. However, an exact mathematical analysis of their dynamics and thermodynamics is available for linear models only. We introduce a class of stochastic delay processes with nonlinear time-local forces and linear time-delayed forces that obey fluctuation theorems and converge to a Boltzmann equilibrium at long times. From the point of view of control theory, such ``equilibrium stochastic delay processes'' are stable and energetically passive, by construction. Computationally, they provide diverse exact constraints on general nonlinear stochastic delay problems and can, in various situations, serve as a starting point for their perturbative analysis. Physically, they admit an interpretation in terms of an underdamped Brownian particle that is either subjected to a time-local force in a non-Markovian thermal bath or to a delayed feedback force in a Markovian thermal bath. We illustrate these properties numerically for a setup familiar from feedback cooling and point out experimental implications.


Author(s):  
I. C. Lin ◽  
M. H. Lee ◽  
P. C. Wu ◽  
S. C. Lin ◽  
J. W. Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Thin oxide films are of vast opportunities for modern electronics and can facilitate emergent phenomena by factors absent in the bulk counterparts, such as the ubiquitous epitaxial strain and interfacial charge doping. Here, we demonstrate the twisting of intended bulk-metallic phases in 10-unit-cell LaNiO3, PrNiO3, and NdNiO3 films on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 into distinct charge-lattice entangled states by epitaxial strains. Using atomically-resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, the interfacial electron doping into SrTiO3 in the conventional context of band alignments are discounted. Instead, spontaneously doped holes that are localized and at the order of 1013 cm-2 are atomically unraveled across all three heterointerfaces and associated with strain mitigations by the accompanied atomic intermixing with various ionic radii. The epitaxial strains also lead to condensations of monoclinic-C2/c lattice instabilities, which are hidden to the bulk phase diagram. The group-theoretical analysis of characteristic transition pathways unveils the strain resurrection of the hidden C2/c symmetry. While this strain-induced monoclinic phase in LaNiO3 remains metallic at room temperature, those in PrNiO3 and NdNiO3 turn out to be insulating. Such strain-induced monoclinic lattice instabilities and parasitic localized holes go beyond the classical elastic deformations of films upon epitaxial strains and hint on plausible hidden orders in versatile oxide heterostructures with unexpected properties, of which the exploration is only at the infancy and full of potentials.


Author(s):  
Daniel Braun ◽  
Ronny Müller

Abstract Quantum algorithms profit from the interference of quantum states in an exponentially large Hilbert space and the fact that unitary transformations on that Hilbert space can be broken down to universal gates that act only on one or two qubits at the same time. The former aspect renders the direct classical simulation of quantum algorithms difficult. Here we introduce higher-order partial derivatives of a probability distribution of particle positions as a new object that shares these basic properties of quantum mechanical states needed for a quantum algorithm. Discretization of the positions allows one to represent the quantum mechanical state of $\nb$ qubits by $2(\nb+1)$ classical stochastic bits. Based on this, we demonstrate many-particle interference and representation of pure entangled quantum states via derivatives of probability distributions and find the universal set of stochastic maps that correspond to the quantum gates in a universal gate set. We prove that the propagation via the stochastic map built from those universal stochastic maps reproduces up to a prefactor exactly the evolution of the quantum mechanical state with the corresponding quantum algorithm, leading to an automated translation of a quantum algorithm to a stochastic classical algorithm. We implement several well-known quantum algorithms, analyse the scaling of the needed number of realizations with the number of qubits, and highlight the role of destructive interference for the cost of the emulation.


Author(s):  
Leonard Doyle ◽  
Pooyan Khademi ◽  
Peter Hilz ◽  
Alexander Sävert ◽  
Georg Schaefer ◽  
...  

Abstract High power short pulse lasers provide a promising route to study the strong field effects of the quantum vacuum, for example by direct photon-photon scattering in the all-optical regime. Theoretical predictions based on realistic laser parameters achievable today or in the near future predict scattering of a few photons with colliding Petawatt laser pulses, requiring single photon sensitive detection schemes and very good spatio-temporal filtering and background suppression. In this article, we present experimental investigations of this photon background by employing only a single high power laser pulse tightly focused in residual gas of a vacuum chamber. The focal region was imaged onto a single-photon sensitive, time gated camera. As no detectable quantum vacuum signature was expected in our case, the setup allowed for characterization and first mitigation of background contributions. For the setup employed, scattering off surfaces of imperfect optics dominated below the residual gas pressures of 1×10-4mbar. Extrapolation of the findings to intensities relevant for photon-photon scattering studies is discussed.


Author(s):  
Zachary Bogorad ◽  
Prajwal MohanMurthy ◽  
Joseph A Formaggio

Abstract The Kassiopeia software package was originally developed to simulate electromagnetic fields and charged particle trajectories for neutrino mass measurement experiments. Recent additions to Kassiopeia also allow it to simulate neutral particle trajectories in magnetic fields based on their magnetic moments. Two different methods were implemented: an exact method that can work for arbitrary fields and an adiabatic method that is limited to slowly-varying fields but is much faster for large precession frequencies. Additional interactions to simulate reflection of ultracold neutrons from material walls and to allow spin-flip pulses were also added. These tools were used to simulate neutron precession in a room temperature neutron electric dipole moment experiment and predict the values of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times as well as the trapping lifetime. All three parameters are found to closely match the experimentally determined values when simulated with both the exact and adiabatic methods, confirming that Kassiopeia is able to accurately simulate neutral particles. This opens the door for future uses of Kassiopeia to prototype the next generation of atomic traps and ultracold neutron experiments.


Author(s):  
Timo Stolt ◽  
Mikko J. Huttunen

Abstract Frequency conversion of light can be dramatically enhanced using high quality factor (Q-factor) cavities. Unfortunately, the achievable conversion efficiencies and conversion bandwidths are fundamentally limited by the time–bandwidth limit of the cavity, restricting their use in frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses. Here, we propose and numerically demonstrate sum-frequency generation based frequency conversion using a metasurface-based cavity configuration that could overcome this limitation. The proposed experimental configuration takes use of the spatially dispersive responses of periodic metasurfaces supporting collective surface lattice resonances (SLRs), and can be utilized for broadband frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses. We investigate a plasmonic metasurface, supporting a high-Q SLR (Q=500, linewidth of 2 nm) centred near 1000 nm, and demonstrate ~1000-fold enhancements of nonlinear signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate broadband frequency conversion with a pump conversion bandwidth reaching 75 nm, a value that greatly surpasses the linewidth of the studied cavity. Our work opens new avenues to utilize high-Q metasurfaces also for broadband frequency conversion of light.


Author(s):  
Johan F. Triana ◽  
Felipe Herrera

Abstract Controlling the quantum field statistics of confined light is a long-standing goal in integrated photonics. We show that by coupling molecular vibrations with a confined mid-infrared cavity vacuum, the photocount and quadrature field statistics of the cavity field can be reversibly manipulated over sub-picosecond timescales. The mechanism involves changing the cavity resonance frequency through a modulation of the dielectric response of the cavity materials using femtosecond UV pulses. For a single anharmonic molecular vibration in an infrared cavity under ultrastrong coupling conditions, the pulsed modulation of the cavity frequency can adiabatically produce mid- infrared light that is simultaneously sub-Poissonian and quadrature squeezed, depending on the dipolar behavior of the vibrational mode. For a vibration-cavity system in strong coupling, non-adiabatic polariton excitations can be produced after the frequency modulation pulse is over, when the system is initially prepared in the lower polariton state. We propose design principles for the generation of mid-infrared quantum light by analyzing the dependence of the cavity field statistics on the shape of the electric dipole function of the molecule, the cavity detuning at the modulation peak and the anharmonicity of the Morse potential. Feasible experimental implementations of the modulation scheme are suggested. This work paves the way for the development of molecule-based mid-infrared quantum optical devices at room temperature.


Author(s):  
Simon Ohler ◽  
Maximilian Kiefer-Emmanouilidis ◽  
Antoine Browaeys ◽  
Hans Peter Buechler ◽  
Michael Fleischhauer

Abstract As shown in recent experiments [V. Lienhard et al., Phys. Rev. X 10, 021031 (2020)], spin-orbit coupling in systems of Rydberg atoms can give rise to density-dependent Peierls Phases in second-order hoppings of Rydberg spin excitations and nearest-neighbor (NN) repulsion. We here study theoretically a one-dimensional zig-zag ladder system of such spin-orbit coupled Rydberg atoms at half filling. The second-order hopping is shown to be associated with an effective gauge field, which in mean-field approximation is static and homogeneous. Beyond the mean-field level the gauge potential attains a transverse quantum component whose amplitude is dynamical and linked to density modulations. We here study the effects of this to the possible ground-state phases of the system. In a phase where strong repulsion leads to a density wave, we find that as a consequence of the induced quantum gauge field a regular pattern of current vortices is formed. However also in the absence of density-density interactions the quantum gauge field attains a non-vanishing amplitude. Above a certain critical strength of the second-order hopping the energy gain due to gauge-field induced transport overcomes the energy cost from the associated build-up of density modulations leading to a spontaneous generation of the quantum gauge field.


Author(s):  
Thomas Deckert ◽  
Jonas Allerbeck ◽  
Takayuki Kurihara ◽  
Daniele Brida

Abstract Energetic correlations and their dynamics govern the fundamental properties of condensed matter materials. Ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopy in the mid infrared is an advanced technique to study such coherent low-energy dynamics. The intrinsic many-body phenomena in functional solid-state materials, in particular few-layer samples, remain widely unexplored to this date, because complex and weak sample responses demand versatile and sensitive detection. Here, we present a novel setup for ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopy with noncollinear geometry and complete field resolution in the 15-40 THz range. Electric fields up to few-100 kV cm-1 drive coherent dynamics in a perturbative regime, and an advanced modulation scheme allows to detect nonlinear signals down to a few tens of V cm-1 entirely background-free with high sensitivity and full control over the geometric phase-matching conditions. Our system aims at the investigation of correlations and many-body interactions in condensed matter systems at low energy. Benchmark measurements on bulk indium antimonide (InSb) reveal a strong six-wave mixing signal and map ultrafast changes of the band structure with access to amplitude and phase information. Our results pave the way towards the investigation of functional thin film materials and few-layer samples.


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