phosphatase and tensin homolog
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1065-1070
Jin Song ◽  
Jiahan Chang ◽  
Xue Lin ◽  
Cibo Fan ◽  
Lili Han ◽  

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a threat to women’s life with a lack of targeted therapy. This study aimed to explore the role of PTEN derived from BMSCs in TNBC. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 65 TNBC patients and 30 healthy subjects from October 2016 to January 2021 with a 10-year follow up. PTEN expression in TNBC tissues and cells was determined by RTqPCR. Functional experiments were conducted to evaluate PTEN’s effect on TNBC cell biological behaviors using MTT assay and Transwell assay, as well as on PI3K-Akt-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling transduction. PTEN was up-regulated in TNBC tissues relative to healthy controls and it was negatively associated with the survival rate. In in vitro experiments, PTEN overexpression increased cell viability and invasion and knocking down of PTEN exerted opposite effect. The expression of PI3K was directly regulated by PTEN. Up-regulation of PTEN resulted in a decline in HIF-1α, Akt and VEGF expressions, which were elevated after knocking down of PTEN. In conclusion, PTEN derived from BMSCs promotes TNBC cell development through blocking PI3K-Akt-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway, providing a new theoretical basis for targeted therapy of TNBC.

Ashley Rose Rackow ◽  
Jennifer L Judge ◽  
Collynn F Woller ◽  
Patricia J. Sime ◽  
Robert Matthew Kottmann

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease. The pathogenesis of IPF is not completely understood. However, numerous genes are associated with the development and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, indicating there is a significant genetic component to the pathogenesis of IPF. Epigenetic influences on the development of human disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, remain to be fully elucidated. In this paper we identify miR-338-3p as a microRNA severely downregulated in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and in experimental models of pulmonary fibrosis. Treatment of primary human lung fibroblasts with miR-338-3p inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and matrix protein production. Published and proposed targets of miR-338-3p such as TGFβ receptor 1, MEK/ERK 1/2, Cdk4 and Cyclin D are also not responsible for the regulation of pulmonary fibroblast behavior by miR-338-3p. miR-338-3p inhibits myofibroblast differentiation by preventing TGFβ-mediated downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a known anti-fibrotic mediator.

Xing Jun Jiang ◽  
Yan Qing Wu ◽  
Rong Ma ◽  
Yan Min Chang ◽  
Lu Lu Li ◽  

As a primary cause of dementia and death in older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a common problem and challenge worldwide. Abnormal accumulation of tau proteins in the brain is a hallmark pathology of AD and is closely related to the clinical progression and severity of cognitive deficits. Here, we found that overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) effectively promoted the degradation of tau, thereby rescuing neuron loss, synaptic damage, and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of tauopathy with AAV-full-length human Tau (hTau) injected into the hippocampal CA1 area (hTau mice). Overexpression of PINK1 activated autophagy, and chloroquine but not MG132 reversed the PINK1-induced decrease in human Tau levels and cognitive improvement in hTau mice. Furthermore, PINK1 also ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by hTau. Taken together, our data revealed that PINK1 overexpression promoted degradation of abnormal accumulated tau via the autophagy–lysosome pathway, indicating that PINK1 may be a potential target for AD treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13250
Shuwei Chang ◽  
Zhanhong Ren ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Pingzhou Du ◽  
Jingbin Li ◽  

The actin cytoskeleton is crucial for plant morphogenesis, and organization of actin filaments (AF) is dynamically regulated by actin-binding proteins. However, the roles of actin-binding proteins, particularly type II formins, in this process remain poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that a type II formin in rice, Oryza sativa formin homolog 3 (OsFH3), acts as a major player to modulate AF dynamics and contributes to rice morphogenesis. osfh3 mutants were semi-dwarf with reduced size of seeds and unchanged responses to light or gravity compared with mutants of osfh5, another type II formin in rice. osfh3 osfh5 mutants were dwarf with more severe developmental defectiveness. Recombinant OsFH3 could nucleate actin, promote AF bundling, and cap the barbed end of AF to prevent elongation and depolymerization, but in the absence of profilin, OsFH3 could inhibit AF elongation. Different from other reported type II formins, OsFH3 could bind, but not bundle, microtubules directly. Furthermore, its N-terminal phosphatase and tensin homolog domain played a key role in modulating OsFH3 localization at intersections of AF and punctate structures of microtubules, which differed from other reported plant formins. Our results, thus, provide insights into the biological function of type II formins in modulating plant morphology by acting on AF dynamics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
Yuan He ◽  
HongQin Yue ◽  
Ying Cheng ◽  
Zhilong Ding ◽  
Zhen Xu ◽  

AbstractLong noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as crucial regulators in tumor progression. Potassium two pore domain channel subfamily K member 15 and WISP2 antisense RNA 1 (KCNK15-AS1) has been confirmed to inhibit the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. However, its downstream mechanism and effect on other cellular functions in PC remain unknown. This study probed the function and potential mechanism of KCNK15-AS1 in PC cell growth. RT-qPCR and western blot were employed to measure gene expression in PC cells. ISH was applied to analyze KCNK15-AS1 expression in PC tissues. Functional assays were utilized to evaluate PC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and EMT. Mechanical experiments were adopted to detect gene interaction in PC cells. The obtained data indicated that KCNK15-AS1 was down-regulated in PC cells and tissues. Overexpressing KCNK15-AS1 hindered cell proliferation, migration and EMT while facilitated cell apoptosis in PC. Mechanically, alkylation repair homolog protein 5 (ALKBH5) was verified to induce m6A demethylation of KCNK15-AS1 to mediate KCNK15-AS1 up-regulation. KCNK15-AS1 combined with KCNK15 5’UTR to inhibit KCNK15 translation. Moreover, KCNK15-AS1 recruited MDM2 proto-oncogene (MDM2) to promote RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) ubiquitination, thus transcriptionally upregulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) to inactivate AKT pathway. In conclusion, our study first confirmed that KCNK15-AS1 hinders PC cell growth by regulating KCNK15 and PTEN, suggesting KCNK15-AS1 as a potential biomarker of PC.

2021 ◽  
Yahya H Hobani

Deregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been implicated in tumorigenesis. FALEC is a lncRNA upregulated in multiple cancer types. FALEC functions as an oncogene through various mechanisms, such as competitively binding miRNAs and regulation of PI3K/AKT, Tp53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog signaling pathways. Pertinent to clinical practice, the use of FALEC as a putative biomarker has been identified. These findings suggested that FALEC might play a pivotal role in human cancers. Further studies are warranted to examine the diagnostic and prognostic performance of FALEC as a noninvasive biomarker in liquid biopsy samples and promote its development to be a clinically utilizable prognostic cancer biomarker and molecular therapeutic target.

2021 ◽  
Doris Krauter ◽  
David Ewers ◽  
Timon J Hartmann ◽  
Stefan Volkmann ◽  
Theresa Kungl ◽  

Duplication of the gene encoding the myelin protein PMP22 causes the hereditary neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A (CMT1A), characterized by hypomyelination of medium to large peripheral axons. Conversely, haplo-insufficiency of PMP22 leads to focal myelin overgrowth in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). However, the molecular mechanisms of myelin growth regulation by PMP22 remain obscure. Here, we found that the major inhibitor of the myelin growth signaling pathway PI3K/Akt/mTOR, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is increased in abundance in CMT1A and decreased in HNPP rodent models. Indeed, treatment of DRG co-cultures from HNPP mice with PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors reduced focal hypermyelination and, importantly, treatment of HNPP mice with the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin improved motor behavior, increased compound muscle amplitudes (CMAP) and reduced tomacula formation in the peripheral nerve. In Pmp22tg CMT1A mice, we uncovered that the differentiation defect of Schwann cells is independent from PI3K/Akt/mTOR activity, rendering the pathway insufficient as a therapy target on its own. Thus, while CMT1A pathogenesis is governed by dys-differentiation uncoupled from PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, targeting the pathway provides novel proof-of-principle for a therapeutic approach to HNPP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1766-1773
Lei Jin ◽  
Tong Yang

The modulatory effect of miR-21 on the proliferation of melanoma cells through stimulation of PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) expression was investigated in the current study. PTEN, as a tumor suppressor, is expressed in low levels in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Nevertheless, miR-21 can stimulate cancer development and suppress cell apoptosis. Overexpression of PTEN substantially impaired the proliferation of miR-21-treated melanoma cells. In addition, miR-21 and PTEN were observed to exhibit a combinatorial effect, whereas miR-21 could negatively regulate the expression of PTEN. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-21 affects melanoma development by targeting PTEN, establishing a new strategy for treating malignant melanoma. Furthermore, in this study, microparticles and nanoparticles were employed as carriers to construct, through the self-assembly method, nanocapsules carrying miR-21 in order to develop an efficient nanocapsule delivery system of miR-21 against melanoma cells.

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