dendritic morphology
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Zhao-Hui Chen ◽  
Yuan-Yuan Han ◽  
Ying-Jie Shang ◽  
Si-Yi Zhuang ◽  
Jun-Ni Huang ◽  

Cordycepin exerted significant neuroprotective effects and protected against cerebral ischemic damage. Learning and memory impairments after cerebral ischemia are common. Cordycepin has been proved to improve memory impairments induced by cerebral ischemia, but its underlying mechanism has not been revealed yet. The plasticity of synaptic structure and function is considered to be one of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Therefore, we investigated how cordycepin benefits dendritic morphology and synaptic transmission after cerebral ischemia and traced the related molecular mechanisms. The effects of cordycepin on the protection against ischemia were studied by using global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) models. Behavioral long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic transmission were observed with electrophysiological recordings. The dendritic morphology and histological assessment were assessed by Golgi staining and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) were evaluated with western blotting. The results showed that cordycepin reduced the GCI-induced dendritic morphology scathing and behavioral LTP impairment in the hippocampal CA1 area, improved the learning and memory abilities, and up-regulated the level of A1R but not A2AR. In the in vitro experiments, cordycepin pre-perfusion could alleviate the hippocampal slices injury and synaptic transmission cripple induced by OGD, accompanied by increased adenosine content. In addition, the protective effect of cordycepin on OGD-induced synaptic transmission damage was eliminated by using an A1R antagonist instead of A2AR. These findings revealed that cordycepin alleviated synaptic dysfunction and dendritic injury in ischemic models by modulating A1R, which provides new insights into the pharmacological mechanisms of cordycepin for ameliorating cognitive impairment induced by cerebral ischemia.

2021 ◽  
Estelle Moubarak ◽  
Yanis Inglebert ◽  
Fabien Tell ◽  
Jean-Marc Goaillard

ABSTRACTAction potential (AP) shape is a critical electrophysiological parameter, in particular because it strongly modulates neurotransmitter release. AP shape is also used to distinguish neuronal populations, as it greatly varies between neuronal types. For instance, AP duration ranges from hundreds of microseconds in cerebellar granule cells to 2-3 milliseconds in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons. While most of this variation seems to arise from differences in the subtypes of voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels expressed, a few studies suggested that dendritic morphology may also affect AP shape. However, AP duration also displays significant variability in a same neuronal type, while the determinants of these variations are poorly known. Using electrophysiological recordings, morphological reconstructions and realistic Hodgkin-Huxley modeling, we investigated the relationships between dendritic morphology and AP shape in SNc DA neurons. In this neuronal type where the axon arises from an axon-bearing dendrite (ABD), the duration of the somatic AP could be predicted from a linear combination of the complexities of the ABD and the non-ABDs. Dendrotomy simulation and experiments showed that these correlations arise from the causal influence of dendritic topology on AP duration, due in particular to a high density of sodium channels in the somato-dendritic compartment. In addition, dendritic morphology also modulated AP back-propagation efficiency in response to barrages of EPSCs in the ABD. In line with previous findings, these results demonstrate that dendritic morphology plays a major role in defining the electrophysiological properties of SNc DA neurons and their cell-to-cell variations.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAction potential (AP) shape is a critical electrophysiological parameter, in particular because it strongly modulates neurotransmitter release. AP shape (e.g. duration) greatly varies between neuronal types but also within a same neuronal type. While differences in ion channel expression seem to explain most of AP shape variation across cell types, the determinants of cell-to-cell variations in a same neuronal type are mostly unknown. We used electrophysiological recordings, neuronal reconstruction and modeling to show that, due to the presence of sodium channels in the somato-dendritic compartment, a large part of cell-to-cell variations in somatic AP duration in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons is explained by variations in dendritic topology.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260005
Monica C. Lannom ◽  
Joshua Nielsen ◽  
Aatiqa Nawaz ◽  
Temirlan Shilikbay ◽  
Stephanie Ceman

Fragile X syndrome results from the loss of expression of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP and RNA helicase Moloney Leukemia virus 10 (MOV10) are important Argonaute (AGO) cofactors for miRNA-mediated translation regulation. We previously showed that MOV10 functionally associates with FMRP. Here we quantify the effect of reduced MOV10 and FMRP expression on dendritic morphology. Murine neurons with reduced MOV10 and FMRP phenocopied Dicer1 KO neurons which exhibit impaired dendritic maturation Hong J (2013), leading us to hypothesize that MOV10 and FMRP regulate DICER expression. In cells and tissues expressing reduced MOV10 or no FMRP, DICER expression was significantly reduced. Moreover, the Dicer1 mRNA is a Cross-Linking Immunoprecipitation (CLIP) target of FMRP Darnell JC (2011), MOV10 Skariah G (2017) and AGO2 Kenny PJ (2020). MOV10 and FMRP modulate expression of DICER1 mRNA through its 3’untranslated region (UTR) and introduction of a DICER1 transgene restores normal neurite outgrowth in the Mov10 KO neuroblastoma Neuro2A cell line and branching in MOV10 heterozygote neurons. Moreover, we observe a global reduction in AGO2-associated microRNAs isolated from Fmr1 KO brain. We conclude that the MOV10-FMRP-AGO2 complex regulates DICER expression, revealing a novel mechanism for regulation of miRNA production required for normal neuronal morphology.

2021 ◽  
Rita Felix ◽  
Daniil A Markov ◽  
Sabine L Renninger ◽  
Raquel Tomas ◽  
Alexandre Laborde ◽  

The olivo-cerebellar system plays an important role in vertebrate sensorimotor control. According to a classical theory of cerebellar cortex, the inferior olive (IO) provides Purkinje cells with error information which drives motor learning in the cerebellum. Here we investigate the sensory representations in the IO of larval zebrafish and their spatial organization. Using single-cell labeling of genetically identified IO neurons we find that they can be divided into at least two distinct groups based on their spatial location, dendritic morphology, and axonal projection patterns. In the same genetically targeted population, we recorded calcium activity in response to a set of visual stimuli using 2-photon imaging. We found that most IO neurons showed direction selective and binocular responses to visual stimuli and that functional properties were spatially organized within the IO. Light-sheet functional imaging that allowed for simultaneous activity recordings at the soma and axonal level revealed tight coupling between soma location, axonal projections and functional properties of IO neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that anatomically-defined classes of inferior olive neurons correspond to distinct functional types, and that topographic connections between IO and cerebellum contribute to organization of the cerebellum into distinct functional zones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Trinidad Montero ◽  
Rafael Ignacio Gatica ◽  
Navid Farassat ◽  
Rodrigo Meza ◽  
Cristian González-Cabrera ◽  

The firing activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons is an important factor in shaping DA release and its role in motivated behavior. Dendrites in DA neurons are the main postsynaptic compartment and, along with cell body and axon initial segment, contribute to action potential generation and firing pattern. In this study, the organization of the dendritic domain in individual VTA and SNc DA neurons of adult male mice, and their relationship to in vivo spontaneous firing, are described. In comparison with dorsal VTA DA neurons, ventrally located VTA neurons (as measured by cell body location) possess a shorter total dendritic length and simpler dendritic architecture, and exhibit the most irregular in vivo firing patterns among DA neurons. In contrast, for DA neurons in the SNc, the higher irregularity of firing was related to a smaller dendritic domain, as measured by convex hull volumes. However, firing properties were also related to the specific regional distribution of the dendritic tree. Thus, VTA DA neurons with a larger extension of their dendritic tree within the parabrachial pigmented (PBP) nucleus fired more regularly compared with those with relatively more dendrites extending outside the PBP. For DA neurons in the SNc, enhanced firing irregularity was associated with a smaller proportion of dendrites penetrating the substantia nigra pars reticulata. These results suggest that differences in dendritic morphology contribute to the in vivo firing properties of individual DA neurons, and that the existence of region-specific synaptic connectivity rules that shape firing diversity.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Celia Biane ◽  
Florian Rückerl ◽  
Therese Abrahamsson ◽  
Cécile Saint-Cloment ◽  
Jean Mariani ◽  

Synaptic transmission, connectivity, and dendritic morphology mature in parallel during brain development and are often disrupted in neurodevelopmental disorders. Yet how these changes influence the neuronal computations necessary for normal brain function are not well understood. To identify cellular mechanisms underlying the maturation of synaptic integration in interneurons, we combined patch-clamp recordings of excitatory inputs in mouse cerebellar stellate cells (SCs), three-dimensional reconstruction of SC morphology with excitatory synapse location, and biophysical modeling. We found that postnatal maturation of postsynaptic strength was homogeneously reduced along the somatodendritic axis, but dendritic integration was always sublinear. However, dendritic branching increased without changes in synapse density, leading to a substantial gain in distal inputs. Thus, changes in synapse distribution, rather than dendrite cable properties, are the dominant mechanism underlying the maturation of neuronal computation. These mechanisms favor the emergence of a spatially compartmentalized two-stage integration model promoting location-dependent integration within dendritic subunits.

2021 ◽  
Simon Weiler ◽  
Drago Guggiana Nilo ◽  
Tobias Bonhoeffer ◽  
Mark H&uumlbener ◽  
Tobias Rose ◽  

Pyramidal cells of neocortical layer 2/3 (L2/3 PyrCs) integrate signals from numerous brain areas and project throughout the neocortex. Within L2/3, PyrCs show functional and structural specializations depending on their pial depth, indicating participation in different functional microcircuits. However, it is unknown whether these depth-dependent differences result from separable L2/3 PyrC subtypes or whether functional and structural features represent a continuum while correlating with pial depth. Here, we assessed the stimulus selectivity, electrophysiological properties, dendritic morphology, and excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity across the depth of L2/3 in the binocular visual cortex (bV1) of female mice. We find that the structure of the apical but not the basal dendritic tree varies with pial depth, which is accompanied by differences in passive but not active electrophysiological properties. PyrCs in lower L2/3 receive increased excitatory and inhibitory input from L4, while upper L2/3 PyrCs receive a larger proportion of intralaminar input. Complementary in vivo calcium imaging revealed a systematic change in visual responsiveness, with deeper L2/3 PyrCs showing more robust responses than superficial PyrCs. Furthermore, deeper L2/3 PyrCs are more strongly driven by contralateral than ipsilateral eye stimulation. In contrast, orientation- and direction-selectivity of L2/3 PyrCs are not dependent on pial depth. Importantly, the transitions of the various properties are gradual, and cluster analysis does not support the classification of L2/3 PyrCs into discrete subtypes. These results show that L2/3 PyrCs' multiple functional and structural properties systematically correlate with their depth within L2/3, forming a continuum rather than representing discrete subtypes.

2021 ◽  
Sonal Shree ◽  
Sabyasachi Sutradhar ◽  
Olivier Trottier ◽  
Yuhai Tu ◽  
Xin Liang ◽  

The highly ramified arbors of neuronal dendrites provide the substrate for the high connectivity and computational power of the brain. Altered dendritic morphology is associated with neuronal diseases. Many molecules have been shown to play crucial roles in shaping and maintaining dendrite morphology. Yet, the underlying principles by which molecular interactions generate branched morphologies are not understood. To elucidate these principles, we visualized the growth of dendrites throughout larval development of Drosophila sensory neurons and discovered that the tips of dendrites undergo dynamic instability, transitioning rapidly and stochastically between growing, shrinking, and paused states. By incorporating these measured dynamics into a novel, agent-based computational model, we showed that the complex and highly variable dendritic morphologies of these cells are a consequence of the stochastic dynamics of their dendrite tips. These principles may generalize to branching of other neuronal cell-types, as well as to branching at the subcellular and tissue levels.

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