Total Flavonoid
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Annisa Fatmawati ◽  
Depita Sucianingsih ◽  
Riza Kurniawati ◽  
Muhammad Abdurrahman

This research was conducted to identify simplicia microscopically, phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content of extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry method. The experimental design used in this study was to perform microscopic identification of Moringa leaf powder simplicia, make 96% and 70% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves from 70% ethanol extract, then carry out phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content with quercetin standards. Phytochemical screening on the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves included tests for the content of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The results of microscopic identification of Moringa leaf simplicia showed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the form of rosettes, mesophyll and stomata. The result of determination of total flavonoid content in 96% ethanol extract was 16.69 ± 0.74% (w/w), 70% ethanol extract was 10.84 ± 0.49% (w/w), Moringa leaf ethyl acetate fraction 14 .45 ± 0.90% (w/w). The highest total flavonoid content was found in the 96% ethanol extract of Moringa leaves in accordance with the 2017 Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, that the thick extract of Moringa leaves containing no less than 6.30% (w/w) total flavonoids was calculated as quercetin.

2022 ◽  
Vol 956 (1) ◽  
pp. 012001
N Nerdy ◽  
B R Barus ◽  
H J El-Matury ◽  
S Ginting ◽  
N F Zebua ◽  

Abstract Free radicals can cause various degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids have antioxidant abilities that inhibit damage from free radicals. The roselle antioxidant mechanism is associated with high flavonoid content. Red and purple roselles are two varieties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) cultivated in Indonesia. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in the calyces of two varieties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), red and purple. Total flavonoid analysis and antioxidant activity testing were done by spectrophotometry in the visible region. Total flavonoid content was analyzed by pretreatment with aluminium chloride and sodium acetate. Antioxidant activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The total flavonoids for both red and purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract were 27.55 and 39.18 mg quercetin equivalent per gram. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values obtained for both red and purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract a were 51.59 and 42.17 μg/mL. The total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract was higher and stronger than red roselle calyces ethanolic extract.

2021 ◽  
pp. 163
Siti Mudaliana ◽  
Rasmono Rasmono ◽  
Dyaninta Yudhiarini ◽  
Retno Indriatie ◽  
Selvy Anggraeni

Banyaknya pasien covid-19 di Kabupaten Bondowoso menyebabkan dikeluarkannya edaran tentang pemanfaatan kearifan lokal untuk membantu mengatasinya. P4TO Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Bondowoso kemudian mengeluarkan ramuan jamu sebagai terapi komplementer untuk pasien covid-19 yang sedang dirawat di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kualitas jamu yang digunakan pada terapi komplementer tersebut. Untuk pengujian kualitas dilakukan uji organoleptis, kadar air, kandungan fitokimia, kadar antioksidan, pemeriksaan cemaran mikroba, dan aktivitas antibakteri dari ramuan jamu yang terdiri dari temu mangga, rosela, kayu manis, secang, dan pandan suji. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan konsistensi organoleptis, sedangkan kadar air di atas nilai yang dipersyaratkan, yaitu ?10%. Pengujian kandungan fitokimia secara kuantitatif menunjukkan jamu tersebut mengandung flavonoid dan alkaloid, dengan total flavonoid, total fenol, dan nilai IC50 hasil uji DPPH berturut-turut adalah 1,86; 31,26 mg/gram dan 8,57 ppm. Untuk pengujian mikrobiologi diketahui tidak ada cemaran mikroba yang berarti. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri menunjukkan tidak ada aktivitas antibakteri. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa “jamu anti-corona” yang digunakan sebagai terapi komplementer di Kabupaten Bondowoso secara kualitas bagus dan memiliki nilai antioksidan yang tinggi.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 693-703
Ah-Ra Hwang ◽  
Myung-Ryun Han ◽  
Ae-Jung Kim

Purpose: We evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 21 types of fruit tea extract that are consumed in Korea. The data were analyzed and curated for the development of processed products using tea in the future.Methods: After extraction using hot water at 70℃, we analyzed the physicochemical properties including color and pH, as well as the antioxidant activity (total flavonoid content, DPPH scavenging activity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity).Results: Calamansi tea exhibited the lowest brightness with a beet-red appearance, and a yellowness that was significantly higher in jujube and radish. The pH ranged from 3.04 to 7.18 and most samples were in an acidic state. Of these, the pH of schizandra fruit tea was the lowest at 3.04±0.01. The total flavonoid content was the highest in calamansi at 217.87±1.45 QE/g, whereas that of cacao nibs was the lowest at 29.04±0.70 QE/g. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Chinese quince was the highest at 59.96%±0.22%.Conclusion: We obtained basic data for several fruit tea extracts by analyzing the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities. We anticipate that these results will represent useful data for blending fruits for tea product development.

2021 ◽  
Aderaw Anteneh Belew ◽  
Getachew G/Mariam W/Hana ◽  
Desta Shumuye Meshesha ◽  
Mulugeta Legese Akele

Abstract Background: Rhus vulgaris is rich in various classes of polyphenols and flavonoids that act as free radical scavengers and reduce oxidative stress and cure various harmful human diseases. The plant is a traditionally known medicinal plant which is used against a number of diseases including cancer. Methods: The current investigation points towards the investigating quantitative phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and the free radical scavenging activity & antioxidant activity of Rhus vulgaris extract in n-hexane, acetone, and 80% of aqueous methanol. The phenolic contents were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu procedure and gallic acid as a reference molecule whereas the total flavonoid contents were determined by using aluminum chloride and catechin. In addition, the dilution serial method was used to evaluate the leaves extract of rhus vulgaris, and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method was utilized to assess the above-mentioned extracts against oxidative stress. Results: The result revealed that the ranges of total phenolic content from 5.82 ± 4.6 to 83.15 ± 7.6 mg GAE/g of the dry weight of extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The total flavonoid concentrations were varied from 2.21 ± 7.34to 23.47 ± 4.87 mg CE/g, expressed as catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as the concentration of DPPH radical’s inhibition ranges from 1.2 ± 0.32 to 22.86 ± 3.71 mg AAE/ g. Conclusion: The 80% aqueous methanolic extract of Rhus vulgaris showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong antioxidant potential and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and incurable diseases.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Yusuf Can Gercek ◽  
Saffet Celik ◽  
Sinan Bayram

In this study, the botanical origin, total flavonoid and phenolic content, antioxidant activity, phenolic profile and fatty acid composition of mixed bee pollen loads collected in Bayburt, Turkey, were determined. In addition to these assays, antibacterial activity of bee-collected pollen extract (BCPE) against a variety of food-borne pathogenic bacteria was determined in vitro. Pollen loads were classified into five botanical families based on their color: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Campanulaceae, Cistaceae and Rosaceae. Total flavonoid, total phenolic, CUPRAC and CERAC concentrations were 173.52 mg GAE/g, 79.21 mg QE/g, 85.59 mg Trolox/g and 118.13 mg Trolox/g, respectively. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were scanned in bee pollen extract by LC-MS/MS, with rutin being the most abundant. Cis-4,7,10,13,16,19 docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant fatty acid, followed by cis-11-eicosenoic acid, palmitic acid, and alfa linolenic acid. In addition, the agar well diffusion (AWD) and micro-broth dilution methods were used to determine of the antibacterial activity of the BCPE sample. MIC values were observed to vary between 2.5–5 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria and 5–10 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacteria. These findings indicate that bee pollen could be a potential source of antioxidants and antimicrobials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (2) ◽  
Annissa Amalia ◽  
Ristiana Kusumawinahyu ◽  
Iin Ruliana Rohenti

Kulit merupakan bagian utama perlindungan tubuh perlindungan yang bersentuhan langsung dengan lingkungan. Salah satu faktor penyebab kerusakan kulit adalah paparan radikal bebas. Pencegahan terhadap berkembangnya radikal bebas dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan senyawa antioksidan yang saat ini banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai anti-aging pada berbagai produk kosmetik. Peneliti terdahulu menyebutkan bahwa kedelai hitam memiliki kandungan antioksidan isoflavon, polifenol total, flavonoid dan antosianin masing-masing dalam kadar 6,13 mg/g; 2,19 mg/g; 0,65mg/g. Selain itu, ekstrak kedelai hitam dianggap memiliki nilai antioksidan yang lebih baik dari kedelai kuning karena kandungan senyawa yang dimilikinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kedelai hitam berpotensi memiliki sifat antioksidan yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai anti-aging. Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji aktivitas antioksidan dari ekstrak etanol kedelai hitam dari varian detam 1. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental laboratorium, yang meliputi uji susut pengeringan, uji skrining fitokimia, dan uji aktivitas antioksidan melalui metode DPPH menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis dengan pembanding Vitamin C (Asam Askorbat). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kedelai hitam detam 1 memiliki nilai susut pengeringan sebesar 7,90% dan positif terhadap adanya flavonoid, alkaloid, triterpenoid dan saponin. Hasil uji antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa nilai IC50 ekstrak kedelai hitam sebesar 220,42 ppm dan tergolong memiliki sifat antioksidan sedang.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-42
Intan Kurnia Putri ◽  
Niken Kanti Putri Nastiti

Pendahuluan: Tanaman jeruk nipis merupakan salah satu tanaman endemik indonesia yang telah banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai tanaman obat. Diketahui bahwa kandungan metabolit sekunder yang dimiliki tanaman jeruk nipis salah satunya adalah flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kadar flavonoid pada ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus x aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle). Metode: Ekstraksi kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus x aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle) menggunakan metode maserasi dengan pelarut etil asetat. Penentuan kadar flavonoid dalam ekstrak etil asetat kulit jeruk nipis menggunakan metode kolorimetri dengan pereaksi AlCl3 dan menggunakan kuersetin sebagai standar pembanding pada panjang gelombang maksimum 430 nm dengan waktu operasi 50 menit. Hasil: Rata-rata kandungan total flavonoid dalam ekstrak etil asetat kulit jeruk nipis adalah 0,64% (b/b) dengan nilai SD 0,0133 dan RSD 0,029%. Kesimpulan: Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa kadar flavonoid total dari ekstrak kulit Jeruk Limau (Citrus x aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle) yang diekstraksi dengan menggunakan pelarut Etil Asetat sebesar 0,64% (b/b).

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (11) ◽  
pp. 2317-2323
Sung-Gyu Lee ◽  
Hyun Kang

Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of three different Rubus coreanus Miq. by-products in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and explore its underlying physiological efficacy.Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to activate BV-2microglia. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were determined by the method of Folin-Denis. As three different Rubus coreanus Miq. by-products remaining after extraction of Rubus coreanus, High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)) finger printing, ABST (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay, and NO (nitric oxide) inhibitory assay were performed.Results: Three different Rubus coreanus by-product extract did not exhibit any signs of cytotoxicity to BV-2 cells up to 100 μg/ml concentration (p < 0.5). The LPS-activated excessive release of NO in BV-2 cells was significantly inhibited by Rubus coreanus by-product extract (p < 0.5) at 500 μg/mL). Total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were highest in 50 % ethanol wine processing by-product (p < 0.5 at 30, 50, 70 and 100 %, respectively). The by-product of wine processing had the lowest RC50 radical scavenging effect (16.53 μL/ml). The quercetin content of the wine processing by-product was the highest in the 70% ethanol extract at 6.26 mg/g (p < 0.5 at 30, 50, 70 and 100%, respectively).Conclusion: These results reveal that of the three other by-products, wine processing by-product has the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The use of these by-products has high added value for industrial production; furthermore, they are a potential treatment for various inflammatory diseases.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7432
Kanokwan Kulprachakarn ◽  
Supakit Chaipoot ◽  
Rewat Phongphisutthinant ◽  
Narisara Paradee ◽  
Adchara Prommaban ◽  

Thua-nao, or Thai fermented soybeans, is a traditional Lanna fermented food in Northern Thailand. It is produced by using a specific bacterial species called Bacillus subtilis var. Thua-nao. We investigated the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of isoflavones from Thua-nao. The phenolic compound contents and total flavonoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was examined using the ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assays. The isoflavone contents and phenolic compositions were examined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The ability of isoflavones to inhibit human cancer cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities of the isoflavones were 49.00 ± 0.51 mg GAE/g of dry extract (DE), 10.76 ± 0.82 mg QE/g of DE, 61.03 ± 0.97 µmol Trolox/g of DE, 66.54 ± 3.97 µM FeSO4/g of DE, and 22.47 ± 1.92% of DPPH inhibition, respectively. Additionally, the isoflavone extracts from Thua-nao had high isoflavone contents and polyphenolic compound compositions, especially daidzein and genistein. The isoflavone demonstrated a weak inhibition of MCF-7 and HEK293 cancer cell growth. It has a high antioxidant component, which is beneficial and can be developed for new therapeutic uses. However, further studies on the benefits of Thua-nao should be performed for realizing better and more effective uses soon.

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