methanol extract
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. G. Toledo ◽  
J. G. de L. de Souza ◽  
C. B. Santana ◽  
A. P. Mallmann ◽  
C. V. dos Santos ◽  

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.

Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria ◽  
Noorsyaza Eddrina Kamsani ◽  
Roro Azizah ◽  
Lilis Sulistyorini ◽  

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-77
Dayu Nirwana Putri ◽  
Sri Widyarti ◽  
Yoga Dwi Jatmiko

Free radicals are constantly produced by either cell metabolism or from external sources. At high concentration, they induced a tissue damage called oxidative stress. Soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.) and noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L.) are medicinal plants with potency as antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum BP102 in elevating the antioxidant activity of soursop and noni leaves. Dried-powder and methanol extract of soursop and noni leaves were diluted with sterile distilled water 3 g/30 mL and 0.3 g/30 mL, respectively, inoculated with 1% (v/v) of L. plantarum BP102 inoculum. The antioxidant activity was carried out using the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The antioxidant activity increased in dried-powder and methanol extract of soursop and noni leaves with different activity levels after being fermented using L. plantarum BP102 based on IC50. The increasing antioxidant activity in dried-powder of soursop leaves IC50 6.41±0.06 to 0.034±0.01 mg/mL (99.5%) was higher than of the methanol extract IC50 2.78±0.00 to 0.11±0.01 mg/mL (96%). Unfortunately, the effect of fermentation towards noni leaves could only be observed in the form of methanol extract IC50 12.8±0.01 to 0.33±0.02 mg/mL (increased by 97.4%), the dried-powder of noni leaves was suspended and produced a dark color. The probiotic L. plantarum BP102 was used as a fermented agent in increasing the bioactive compounds especially related to antioxidant activity.

Morenike O. Adeoye-Isijola ◽  
Kubendran K. Naidoo ◽  
Roger M. Coopoosamy ◽  
Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen causing life-threatening hospital and community-acquired infections with high morbidity and mortality rates requiring constant vigilance.Aim: This study aimed at investigating the antistaphylococcal effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera against different strains of multidrug methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to indicate the need for its use in ethnomedicine in addition to its fruits being used in traditional medicine.Methods: In this study, the susceptibilities of S. aureus were investigated using multi-disc antibiotics and extracts of T. tetraptera by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods.Settings: While attention has been focused on the fruits of this plant, it is necessary to investigate the pharmacological importance of its stem bark.Results: The antibiogram showed that 70% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Nitrofurantoin and gentamicin antibiotics were the most effective whilst amoxicillin and augumentin were the least effective. The susceptibility of the isolates was concentration dependent as inhibition zones decreased with decrease in the concentrations of each of the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acetone extract ranged between 0.019 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL whilst the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The MICs of the methanol extract ranged between 0.039 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL whilst the MBCs ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Both extracts were more bactericidal than being bacteriostatic against all the isolates. The methanol extract was more active than the acetone extract as indicated by the varied inhibition zones and MICs obtained from the different extracts.Conclusion: This study revealed the great therapeutic potentials of T. tetraptera and validated its use in ethnomedicine and would be effective in the treatment of multidrug and MRSA infections.

2022 ◽  
Mariah Ndilimeke Muhongo ◽  
Mourine Kangogo ◽  
Christine Bii

The complete halt in the synthesis of new effective antimicrobial compounds is a global concern. Pathogenic microorganisms' virulence mechanisms seem to have a significant impact on their pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and methanol fractions of Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitziae leaf extract, as well as its effect on the expression level of virulence-associated genes.The extract's fractions were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ATCC 90029. The test organism's antibiogram pattern was determined. The extracts' attenuation effect on the target genes of the susceptible organisms was investigated employing relative quantification using RT-qPCR. The test organism's antibiogram pattern revealed that it was drug-resistant, intermediate, and sensitive. The extracts tested positive for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ATCC 90029, with zones of inhibition varying from 20.33 to 29 mm. The lowest recorded MIC value was 4.688 mg/ml, while the highest was 37.5 mg/ml. In contrast to the methanol extract, the ethanol extract had a cidal action at a lower dose. The ethanol extract's Sub-MIC (18.25 mg/ml) merely reduced the expression of the hly gene in MRSA. The MRSA virulence genes were not suppressed by the sub-MIC of methanol extract (18.25 mg/ml). Notably, the expression of als1, pbl1, and sap1 in Candida albicans ATCC 90029 was significantly attenuated when exposed to sub-MICs of ethanol extract (2,344 mg/ml) and methanol extract (9.375 mg/ml). Per the findings of this research, the leaves of P. leubnitziae could be a source of an effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of MRSA/Candida-related disorders.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 437
Ming-Jen Cheng ◽  
Ming-Der Wu ◽  
Chao-Lin Chang ◽  
Hsun-Shuo Chang ◽  
Chiou-Fung Chyu ◽  

Five new dimer compounds, namely Taiwaniacryptodimers A‒E (1–5), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Taiwania cryptomerioides. Their structures were established by mean of spectroscopic analysis and comparison of NMR data with those of known analogues. Their antifungal activities were also evaluated. Our results indicated that metabolites 1, 2, 4, and 5 displayed moderate antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium italicum, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 374
Lingyun Zhong ◽  
Yuji Lin ◽  
Can Wang ◽  
Bei Niu ◽  
Ying Xu ◽  

The purpose of this study was to investigate the major flavonoids content and bioactivities of Tartary buckwheat sprouts. The crude methanol extract (ME) of Tartary buckwheat sprouts was abundant in flavonoids, and six major flavonoids, including isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, quercetin, and kaemferol were successfully determined from the sprouts by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Generally, the flavonoid content of buckwheat sprouts was in the order of rutin > quercetin > isovitexin > vitexin> isoorientin > kaemferol. The highest rutin content of the ME and sprout cultures was 89.81 mg/g and 31.50 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity results indicated the ME displayed notable inhibitory activity against the five tested bacteria, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.8 mg/mL to 3.2 mg/mL. Among the six flavonoids, quercetin was the most active compound, which exhibited strong activity against all tested bacteria except for E. coli and S. epidermidis, with its MIC values ranging from 0.2 mg/mL to 0.4 mg/mL. For the antifungal activity assay, the ME of Tartary buckwheat sprouts and four flavonoids could significantly inhibit the spore germination of two pathogenic fungi, and their inhibitory efficiency was concentration dependent. Quercetin was the most active one, which significantly inhibited the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and its median effective inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was 42.36 and 32.85 µg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity results showed that quercetin, kaemferol, and rutin displayed excellent antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test, and their IC50 value was calculated as 5.60, 16.23, and 27.95 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract of Tartary buckwheat sprouts. These results indicated that the methanol extract of Tartary buckwheat sprouts could be used as a potential antimicrobial or antioxidant agent in the future.

Nor Hisam Zamakshshari ◽  
Idris Adewale Ahmed ◽  
Nur Alyaa Mat Didik ◽  
Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin ◽  
Najihah Mohd Hashim ◽  

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Shanmuga Priya Ramasamy ◽  
Anitha Rajendran ◽  
Muthukrishnan Pallikondaperumal ◽  
Priya Sundararajan ◽  
Fohad Mabood Husain ◽  

The current study aimed to screen the preliminary phytochemicals in the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Simarouba glauca and to analyze its potential antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. The phytochemical profile of the methanol extract was analyzed, and bioactive compounds were identified using chromatography, FTIR and GCMS. Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined against 14 bacterial and 6 fungal strains. Moreover, the synergistic effect of a plant extract with commercially available antibiotics was also evaluated using the checkerboard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed exclusive activity against S. aureus and profound activity against E. coli and S. marcescens. Upon comparing breakpoints, methanolic extract demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 3.2 mg/mL against the test pathogens. Furthermore, the extracts demonstrated potential antioxidant activity; methanol extract had higher antioxidant potential compared to the ethanol extract. The major proactive bioactive compound with maximum antioxidant capacity was observed to be terpenoids. The methanol extract of S. glauca showed significant cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 16.12 µg/mL. The overall results of our work provide significant evidence for the usage of methanolic extract of S. glauca as an efficient ethnomedicinal agent and a potential candidate for relieving many human ailments.

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