Total Flavonoid Content
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2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e430
A. Bodaghzadeh ◽  
K. Alirezalu ◽  
S. Amini ◽  
A. Alirezalu ◽  
R. Domínguez ◽  

The present study evaluates the contents in bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, oil content and fatty acid composition of Capparis spinosa seeds. Samples were collected from 5 different habitats (AH: Ahar; KU: Kurdistan; U1, U2 and U3: Urmia) in Iran. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 16 to 27%. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (45-50%) followed by oleic acid (30-39%), palmitic acid (2-8%) and stearic acid (2-3%). Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 16.3 to 24.2 mg GAE/ g DW; total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 1.48 to 3.05 mg QE/g DW; and the antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) of the seeds was between 35 and 63%. The compounds obtained from different genotypes of C. spinosa seeds had different compositions, great antioxidant capacity and unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore could be a prospective source of natural bioactive molecules for the food and health industry.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 153
Francesco Cairone ◽  
Stefania Cesa ◽  
Alessia Ciogli ◽  
Giancarlo Fabrizi ◽  
Antonella Goggiamani ◽  

The aim of this work was to develop innovative and sustainable extraction, concentration, and purification technologies aimed to recover target substances from corn oil, obtained as side stream product of biomass refineries. Residues of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and polyphenols could be extracted from this matrix and applied as ingredients for food and feeds, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. These molecules are well known for their antioxidant and antiradical capacity, besides other specific biological activities, generically involved in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. The project involved the development of methods for the selective extraction of these minor components, using as suitable extraction technique solid phase extraction. All the extracted and purified fractions were evaluated by NMR spectroscopic analyses and UV–Vis spectrophotometric techniques and characterized by quali-quantitative HPLC analyses. TPC (total phenolic content) and TFC (total flavonoid content) were also determined. DPPH and ABTS radical were used to evaluate radical quenching abilities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), amylase, glucosidase, and tyrosinase were selected as enzymes in the enzyme inhibitory assays. The obtained results showed the presence of a complex group of interesting molecules with strong potential in market applications according to circular economy principles.

Annisa Fatmawati ◽  
Depita Sucianingsih ◽  
Riza Kurniawati ◽  
Muhammad Abdurrahman

This research was conducted to identify simplicia microscopically, phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content of extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry method. The experimental design used in this study was to perform microscopic identification of Moringa leaf powder simplicia, make 96% and 70% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves from 70% ethanol extract, then carry out phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content with quercetin standards. Phytochemical screening on the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves included tests for the content of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The results of microscopic identification of Moringa leaf simplicia showed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the form of rosettes, mesophyll and stomata. The result of determination of total flavonoid content in 96% ethanol extract was 16.69 ± 0.74% (w/w), 70% ethanol extract was 10.84 ± 0.49% (w/w), Moringa leaf ethyl acetate fraction 14 .45 ± 0.90% (w/w). The highest total flavonoid content was found in the 96% ethanol extract of Moringa leaves in accordance with the 2017 Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, that the thick extract of Moringa leaves containing no less than 6.30% (w/w) total flavonoids was calculated as quercetin.

2022 ◽  
Amritpal Kaur ◽  
Yash Sharma ◽  
Kamran Waidha ◽  
Madhumita P Ghosh ◽  
Anoop Kumar ◽  

Abstract Abrus precatorius is a widely distributed tropical medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties, however its seed extract has not been studied against cervical cancer (CaCx) till date. Herein, we have assessed the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of A. precatorius seed extracts (ethyl acetate and 70% ethanol) prepared from different extraction methods (Soxhlet and maceration) against human cervix carcinoma cells (Hep2C). We observed a significantly higher total flavonoid content of APE (sox) i.e.,112.7±0.127 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g of extract than others; total phenolic content of APA (mac) seed extract was higher i.e.,108.53±0.089 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g of extract and total tannin content of APA (sox) was higher i.e., 98.98± 0.011 mg tannic acid equivalents/g of extract. In addition, tannic acid, rutin and piperine were identified in extracts by HPLC. Furthermore, APA (sox) exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 14.49±0.93µg/ml. APE (mac) showed the most significant antiproliferative activity with IC50 value of 85.90±0.93µg/mL against Hep2c cells. SOD and GST activity was observed as highest in the APA(Mac) extract whereas the catalase activity and GSH content was maximum in the APE(Mac) extract. Further, the MDA content was observed to be the least in APE(Mac) extracts. Docking results suggested maximum binding energy between tannic acid and Her2 receptor compared to doxorubicin (standard). This study provides evidence that A. precatorius seed extracts possess promising bioactive compounds with probable anticancer and antioxidant properties against CaCx which might be utilized as a possible herbal remedy aimed at restricting tumor growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 956 (1) ◽  
pp. 012001
N Nerdy ◽  
B R Barus ◽  
H J El-Matury ◽  
S Ginting ◽  
N F Zebua ◽  

Abstract Free radicals can cause various degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids have antioxidant abilities that inhibit damage from free radicals. The roselle antioxidant mechanism is associated with high flavonoid content. Red and purple roselles are two varieties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) cultivated in Indonesia. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in the calyces of two varieties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), red and purple. Total flavonoid analysis and antioxidant activity testing were done by spectrophotometry in the visible region. Total flavonoid content was analyzed by pretreatment with aluminium chloride and sodium acetate. Antioxidant activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The total flavonoids for both red and purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract were 27.55 and 39.18 mg quercetin equivalent per gram. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values obtained for both red and purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract a were 51.59 and 42.17 μg/mL. The total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of purple roselle calyces ethanolic extract was higher and stronger than red roselle calyces ethanolic extract.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 52-61
Nguyễn Phước Minh

Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most delicious fruits popularly cultivated in tropical regions due to its sweet-juicy taste, attractive flavor and bioactive composition. Extending cantaloupe shelf-life during handling and distribution is very necessary to upgrade its commercial value. Methyl jasmonate (MJeA) and salicylic acid (SA) are bio-regulators widely applied on either pre- or post-harvest to extend the shelf life and maintain fruit quality during storage. In this investigation, the possibility of both pre-harvest (7 days before harvesting) via spraying and post-harvest (immediately after harvesting) evaluated by dipping on cantaloupe fruit by either MJeA (3 mM) or SA (3 mM) separately; in combination with MJeA/SA (1.5/1.5 mM/mM) for 30 s. These fruits were kept at 24±0.5 oC for 28 days of storage. In 7 day-interval, fruits were sampled to verify firmness, weight loss, decay rate, total soluble solid, carotenoid, vitamin C, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in quality attributes between the treated samples and the control ones. However, there was no significant difference in quality attributes on either pre-harvest or post-harvest treatments by MeJA and SA reagents. Incorporation of MJeA/SA (1.5/1.5 mM/mM) by either pre-harvest or post-harvest maintained the most firmness (52.10±0.11 N or 52.37±0.08 N), total soluble solid (18.08±0.05 oBrix or 18.15±0.04 oBrix), carotenoid (46.97±0.02 µg/100 g or 47.10±0.03 µg/100 g), vitamin C (26.04±0.02 mg/100 g or 26.17±0.02 mg/100 g), total phenolic content (117.86±0.05 mg GAE/100 g or 119.75±0.09 mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoid content (84.04±0.02 mg QE/100 g or 84.20±0.02 mg QE/100 g) as well as the least weight loss (3.74±0.01% or 3.66±0.03%) and decay rate (1.42±0.01% or 1.26±0.03%) at the end of 28 days of storage. The synergistic effect of MeJA and SA would be a promising alternative to preserve cantaloupe fruit quality with a long shelf life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
João Vitor Souza Ramada ◽  
Antonio Carlos Pereira de Menezes Filho ◽  
Matheus Vinicius Abadia Ventura ◽  
Hellen Regina Fernandes Batista-Ventura ◽  
Celiana Maria Ferrarini Triches ◽  

Himatanthus obovatus is a tree species that has laticifers in its aerial organs, where it is used in folk medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the latex of H. obovatus regarding its phytochemical composition and biological activities. The latex was collected and lyophilized, yield (%) was carried out, phytochemical prospection for several groups, determination of the content of flavonoids, phenolics and total tannins, antioxidant activity in reducing DPPH, antifungal activity on the Candida genus, antibacterial for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella serovar Enteritidis and Thyphymurium and Enterococcus faecalis, hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and cytotoxicity bioassay on Artemia salina. The latex yield was 19.05%, positive presence of several groups of phytocompounds was observed, total flavonoid content of 78.80 mg QE 100 g-1, total phenolic compounds of 166.51 mg AGE g 100-1, total tannins of 14.81 mg TAE 100 g-1, antioxidant activity IC50 = 178.87 µg mL-1, antifungal activity for all Candida strains and antibacterial only for E. coli and E. faecalis, hemolytic activity between 68-18% and cytotoxicity with LC50 = 433.97 µg mL-1 on A. salina. The latex of Himatanthus obovatus demonstrated in this study, important phytochemical data and biological activities.

Muhammad Azlil Adzif ◽  
Nurhani Fatihah Jariah ◽  
Murni Halim ◽  
Oi-Ming Lain ◽  
Nur Ain Syaqirah Sapian ◽  

Excess of free radicals accelerates the degradation of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion due to oxidative damage resulting in low emulsion quality such as in lotion formulation. The blend of antioxidants in O/W emulsion could reduce the damage caused by the radical compounds. The crude extract of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) leaves was screened for assessing bioactive phytochemical constituents. By using various chemical assays, the extract of S. crispus leaves revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Besides that, the antioxidant activity of the leaf extract, spray-dried extract, a lotion containing extract and other local and abroad commercial lotions were determined as references using standard methods such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reducing power assay. In terms of TFC, the highest, 10.591±0.01 mg QE/g was recorded in crude extract along with the highest reducing power and percentage inhibition, 25.40±0.02 mg GAE/g and 88.89 % respectively. The result from TPC value can be a good indicator for a longer shelf life of the O/W emulsion if compared to other results from TPF, reducing power and DPPH value. From this study, it can be concluded that S. crispus has potential as a good natural antioxidant ingredient for the emulsion of O/W formulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1035-1039
Ashiq Arafat Zitu ◽  
Jahid Hasan Shourove ◽  
Md Mozammel Hoque ◽  
Rowshon Ara

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four underutilized fruits namely Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.), Olive (Elaeocarpus serratus L.), Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and Taikor (Garcinia pedunculata Roxb.) commonly found in Bangladesh were evaluated. The highest total phenolic content (685.08 ± 27.65 mg GAE/100 ml) and total flavonoid content (148.18 ± 0.40 mg QE/100 ml) were found in Taikor extract, which compliance with its highest DPPH scavenging activity and antibacterial properties. It exerted a significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) zone of inhibition against Escerichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. than the other experimented fruit extracts. The antioxidant activity was found as Taikor (43.15 ± 1.61%)> Roselle (33.07 ± 1.61%) > Olive (28.68 ± 0.78%) > Jujube (24.81 ± 1.34%). Bacillus spp. are found to be more susceptible to the experimented sample extracts. Fruit samples studied may be utilized as potential sources of natural antioxidants and antibacterial compounds, and their extracts may be used as natural biopreservatives to extend the shelf life of foodstuffs. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1035-1039, 2021 (December)

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 693-703
Ah-Ra Hwang ◽  
Myung-Ryun Han ◽  
Ae-Jung Kim

Purpose: We evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 21 types of fruit tea extract that are consumed in Korea. The data were analyzed and curated for the development of processed products using tea in the future.Methods: After extraction using hot water at 70℃, we analyzed the physicochemical properties including color and pH, as well as the antioxidant activity (total flavonoid content, DPPH scavenging activity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity).Results: Calamansi tea exhibited the lowest brightness with a beet-red appearance, and a yellowness that was significantly higher in jujube and radish. The pH ranged from 3.04 to 7.18 and most samples were in an acidic state. Of these, the pH of schizandra fruit tea was the lowest at 3.04±0.01. The total flavonoid content was the highest in calamansi at 217.87±1.45 QE/g, whereas that of cacao nibs was the lowest at 29.04±0.70 QE/g. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Chinese quince was the highest at 59.96%±0.22%.Conclusion: We obtained basic data for several fruit tea extracts by analyzing the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities. We anticipate that these results will represent useful data for blending fruits for tea product development.

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