cinnamic acid
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. L. Cansian ◽  
A. Staudt ◽  
J. L. Bernardi ◽  
B. M. S. Puton ◽  
D. Oliveira ◽  

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.

Marcela Brito ◽  
Ana Maturana ◽  
Ivan Montenegro ◽  
Bastian Said ◽  

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
You Wu ◽  
Ming-hui Wang ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  
Tian-yu Qin ◽  
Ling-ling Qin ◽  

Cinnamic acid (AC) and cinnamic aldehyde (AL) are two chemicals enriched in cinnamon and have been previously proved to improve glucolipid metabolism, thus ameliorating metabolic disorders. In this study, we employed transcriptomes and proteomes on AC and AL treated db/db mice in order to explore the underlying mechanisms for their effects. Db/db mice were divided into three groups: the control group, AC group and AL group. Gender- and age-matched wt/wt mice were used as a normal group. After 4 weeks of treatments, mice were sacrificed, and liver tissues were used for further analyses. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were performed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. DEPs were further verified by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The results suggested that AC and AL share similar mechanisms, and they may improve glucolipid metabolism by improving mitochondrial functions, decreasing serotonin contents and upregulating autophagy mediated lipid clearance. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms of AC and AL on hepatic transcriptomes and proteomes in disrupted metabolic situations and lays a foundation for future experiments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yasir Nazir ◽  
Hummera Rafique ◽  
Sadia Roshan ◽  
Shazia Shamas ◽  
Zaman Ashraf ◽  

Tyrosinase and its related proteins are responsible for pigmentation disorders, and inhibiting tyrosinase is an established strategy to treat hyperpigmentation. The carbonyl scaffolds can be effective inhibitors of tyrosinase activity, and the fact that both benzoic and cinnamic acids are safe natural substances with such a scaffolded structure, it was speculated that hydroxyl-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives may exhibit potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. These moieties were incorporated into new chemotypes that displayed in vitro inhibitory effect against mushroom tyrosinase with a view to explore antimelanogenic ingredients. The most active compound, 2-((3-acetylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl(E)-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate (5c), inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 0.0020 ± 0.0002   μ M , while 2-((3-acetylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (3c) had an IC50 of 27.35 ± 3.6   μ M in comparison to the positive control arbutin and kojic acid with a tyrosinase inhibitory activity of IC50 of 191.17 ± 5.5   μ M and IC50 of 16.69 ± 2.8   μ M , respectively. Analysis of enzyme kinetics revealed that 5c is a competitive and reversible inhibitor with dissociation constant (Ki) value 0.0072 μM. In silico docking studies with mushroom tyrosinase (PDB ID 2Y9X) predicted possible binding modes in the enzymatic pocket for these compounds. The orthohydroxyl of the cinnamic acid moiety of 5c is predicted to form hydrogen bond with the active site side chain carbonyl of Asn 260 (2.16 Å) closer to the catalytic site Cu ions. The acetyl carbonyl is picking up another hydrogen bond with Asn 81 (1.90 Å). The inhibitor 5c passed the panassay interference (PAINS) alerts. This study presents the potential of hydroxyl-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acids and could be beneficial for various cosmetic formulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Kateryna Kukil ◽  
Pia Lindberg

Abstract Background Phenylpropanoids represent a diverse class of industrially important secondary metabolites, synthesized in plants from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Cyanobacteria have a great potential for sustainable production of phenylpropanoids directly from CO2, due to their photosynthetic lifestyle with a fast growth compared to plants and the ease of generating genetically engineered strains. This study focuses on photosynthetic production of the starting compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway, trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Results A selected set of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzymes from different organisms was overexpressed in Synechocystis, and the productivities of the resulting strains compared. To further improve the titer of target compounds, we evaluated the use of stronger expression cassettes for increasing PAL protein levels, as well as knock-out of the laccase gene slr1573, as this was previously reported to prevent degradation of the target compounds in the cell. Finally, to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the production of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids from Synechocystis, cultivation conditions promoting rapid, high density growth were tested. Comparing the different PALs, the highest specific titer was achieved for the strain AtC, expressing PAL from Arabidopsis thaliana. A subsequent increase of protein level did not improve the productivity. Production of target compounds in strains where the slr1573 laccase had been knocked out was found to be lower compared to strains with wild type background, and the Δslr1573 strains exhibited a strong phenotype of slower growth rate and lower pigment content. Application of a high-density cultivation system for the growth of production strains allowed reaching the highest total titers of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids reported so far, at around 0.8 and 0.4 g L−1, respectively, after 4 days. Conclusions Production of trans-cinnamic acid, unlike that of p-coumaric acid, is not limited by the protein level of heterologously expressed PAL in Synechocystis. High density cultivation led to higher titres of both products, while knocking out slr1573 did not have a positive effect on production. This work contributes to capability of exploiting the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria for sustainable production of plant phenylpropanoids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuxiang Zhang ◽  
Jianping Wei ◽  
Hong Guo ◽  
Chen Niu ◽  
Yahong Yuan ◽  

Cinnamic acid (CA) is a safe and effective antimicrobial agent. The objective of this study was to reveal the antibacterial mechanism of CA against a food-derived Pseudomonas fragi 38-8, from the aspects of bacterial growth kinetics, cell membrane homeostasis, cell microstructure, and transcription. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against P. fragi 38-8 was 0.25 mg/ml. CA retarded bacterial growth and induced a series of cell membrane changes. After CA treatment, cell membrane homeostasis was destroyed, which was evidenced by cell membrane depolarization, intracellular pH reduction, and intracellular ATPase activity decrease. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope (CLSM) realized the visualization of cell microstructure changes, showing cell death and morphological changes, such as cell rupture, shrinkage, and hollowness. RNA sequencing analysis further confirmed the effects of CA to the cell membrane, because of the significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to membrane. The results of the phenotype tests and RNA-seq both focused on cell membrane damage, which showed that CA exerted antibacterial effect mainly by acting on cell membrane.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-76
Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh ◽  
Natasa Mohd Shakri ◽  
Mohd Azlan Nafiah ◽  
Shamsul Khamis

This study was carried out to investigate the phytochemicals from Polyalthia sumatrana and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Fractionation and purification of the leaves of P. sumatrana led to the isolation and identification of five alkaloids; boldine (1), norboldine (2), liriodenine (3), predicentrine (4), laurotetanine (5) together with β-sitosterol (6), β-sitostenone (7), vanillin (8), vanillic acid (9) and cinnamic acid (10). The structures of these compounds were obtained by analysis of their spectroscopic data, as well as the comparison with that of reported data. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity revealed that all isolated alkaloids were found to inhibit AChE with percentage inhibition values ranged from 45.0 to 80.6%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 291 ◽  
pp. 110613
Yanhui Xiao ◽  
Jieli Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Jiang ◽  
Yuan Yuan ◽  
Jing Xie ◽  

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