reaction system
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 548
Gabriela V. T. Kurban ◽  
Artur S. C. Rego ◽  
Nathalli M. Mello ◽  
Eduardo A. Brocchi ◽  
Rogério C. S. Navarro ◽  

The sulfur–iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle is a promising route proposed for hydrogen production. The decomposition temperature remains a challenge in the process. Catalysts, such as Pd supported on Al2O3, are being considered to decrease reaction temperatures. However, little is known regarding the kinetic behavior of such systems. In this work, zinc sulfate thermal decomposition was studied through non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis to understand the effect of a catalyst within the sulfur–iodine reaction system context. The findings of this analysis were also related to a thermodynamic assessment. It was observed that the presence of Pd/Al2O3 modified the reaction mechanism, possibly with some intermediate reactions that were suppressed or remarkably accelerated. The proposed model suggests that zinc sulfate transformation occurred in two sequential stages without the Pd-based material. Activation energy values of 238 and 368 kJ.mol−1 were calculated. In the presence of Pd/Al2O3, an activation energy value of 204 kJ.mol−1 was calculated, which is lower than observed previously.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yanan Wang ◽  
Zhenxin Sun ◽  
Qingping Li ◽  
Xin Lv ◽  
Yang Ge

The methodology of using CO2 to replace CH4 to recover the natural gas hydrates (NGHs) is supposed to avoid geological disasters. However, the reaction path of the CH4–CO2 replacement method is too complex to give satisfactory replacement efficiency. Therefore, this study proposed a thermochemical reaction system that used the heat and the nitrogen released by the thermochemical reactions to recover NGHs. The performance of the thermochemical reaction system (NaNO2 and NH4Cl) regarding heat generation and gas production under low temperature (4°C) conditions was evaluated, and the feasibility of exploiting NGHs with an optimized formula of the thermochemical reaction system was also evaluated in this study. First, the effects of three catalysts (HCl, H₃PO₄, and NH2SO3H) were investigated at the same reactant concentration and catalyst concentration. It was confirmed that HCl as a catalyst can obtain better heat generation and gas production. Second, the effect of HCl concentration on the reaction was investigated under the same reactant concentration. The results showed that the higher the HCl concentration, the faster is the reaction rate. When the concentration of HCl was greater than 14 wt%, side reactions would occur to produce toxic gas; hence, 14 wt% was the optimal catalyst concentration for the reaction of NaNO2 and NH4Cl at low temperatures. Third, the heat generation and gas production of the thermochemical reaction systems were evaluated at different reactant concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mol/L) at 14 wt% HCl concentration. It was found that the best reactant concentration was 5 mol/L. Finally, the feasibility of exploiting NGHs with the optimal system was analyzed from the perspectives of thermal decomposition and nitrogen replacement. The thermochemical reaction system provided by this study is possible to be applied to explore NGHs’ offshore.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Heesung Eum ◽  
Seokhyeon Cheong ◽  
Jiyun Kim ◽  
Seo-Jung Han ◽  
Minserk Cheong ◽  

The removal of nitric oxide (NO), which is an aggregation agent for fine dust that causes air pollution, from exhaust gas has been considered an important treatment in the context of environmental conservation. Herein, we propose a sustainable electrochemical NO removal system based on the reversible Fe2+/Fe3+-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) redox reaction, which enables continuous NO capture and storage at ambient temperature without the addition of any sacrificial agents. We have designed a flow-type reaction system in which the NO absorption and emission can be separately conducted in the individual reservoirs of the catholyte and anolyte with the continuous regeneration of Fe2+-EDTA by the electrochemical reduction in Fe3+-EDTA. A continuous flow reaction using a silver cathode and glassy carbon anode showed that the concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+-EDTA in the electrolyte were successfully maintained at a 1:1 ratio, which demonstrates that the proposed system can be applied for continuous NO capture and storage.

Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Chengniu Wang ◽  
Jing Dong ◽  
Tingting Li ◽  
Xi Zhao ◽  
Dawei Xu

Herein, a palladium-catalyzed semi-hydrogenation of alkynes to E- and Z-alkenes employing EtOH as hydrogenating agents was reported. The selectivity of the reaction system was effectively controlled by ligand/additive and solvent regulation. The use of sodium acetate/triethanolamine (NaOAc/TEOA), THF and (1R,2R)-bis[(2-methoxypheny)phenyl- phosphino]ethane ((R,R)-DIPAMP), CH3CN was critical for the stereoselective semihydrogenation of alkynes. The general applicability of this procedure was highlighted by the synthesis of more than 36 alkenes, with good yields and high stereoselectivities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Xiao Ma ◽  
Dezhi Kong ◽  
Zihui Chang

It is understood that the effect of exercise rehabilitation drugs in patients with lumbar disc herniation is poor. Some studies have shown that bismuth tungstate nanomaterials with certain morphology can treat the exercise rehabilitation of patients with lumbar disc herniation. In order to help patients with lumbar disc herniation to a certain extent, in this paper, bismuth tungstate nanomaterials with different structures and morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal method, and viscous tungsten nanomaterials with different structures and morphologies were prepared by adjusting the pH value of the solution and the concentration of CTAB. In this paper, the structure and morphology of tungsten samples with different structure and morphology were characterized by CTAB X-ray (XRD) deflection and FESEM. It was found that the morphology of the samples changed after adding 0.02 mol/L surfactant CTAB in the reaction system, and when the concentration of CTAB was 0.04 mol/L, the nanotubes were stacked together under the action of surfactant. When the concentration of CTAB increased to 0.06 mol/L, the self-assembled nanocomposites tended to be petal like.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Xiao Ma ◽  
Zhenjun Wang

Ciprofloxacin (CIP), as a common antibiotic used in human clinical and livestock farming, is discharged into natural water bodies and its concentration has increased in the last years. Its stable chemical structure is difficult to remove by conventional techniques. Residual ciprofloxacin in the environment has become an emerging micropollutant that promotes the generation of resistance genes of bacteria and endangers ecosystem balance and human health. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by the system of ultrasound/electric field/sodium persulfate (US/E/PS) was investigated. Firstly, CIP degradation affects by different oxidation methods, such as ultrasonic oxidation, electro-oxidation, and persulfate oxidation, and their four combined oxidation methods (ultrasound-activated persulfate oxidation, electro-activated persulfate oxidation, ultrasound-enhanced electro-oxidation, and ultrasound-enhanced electro-activated persulfate oxidation), on the target contaminants were compared. Secondly, the influences of parameters on the CIP degradation by an ultrasound-enhanced electro-activation-persulfate reaction system were investigated. Thirdly, the possible free radical species in the ultrasound-enhanced electro-activation-sulfate reaction system were identified and the dominant free radical species in the system were analyzed. Finally, the samples of CIP in the US/E/PS system were tested by liquid mass spectrometry, and the possible intermediate products and degradation path were speculated. The results indicate that the US/E/PS system is of great potential application value in the removal of organic pollution and environmental purification.

Gu Shiyan ◽  
Zhang Wenyi ◽  
Xing Huige ◽  
Wang Ruji ◽  
Sun Jiyang ◽  

Abstract The fermentation system with high solid materials for food waste (FW) is uneven in nutrition and easy to produce volatile acid accumulation, which causes the reaction system to acidify and affects the normal operation of fermentation. This study evaluated the effect of the co-substrate percentages (FW:CB = 9:1, FW:CB = 8:2, FW:CB = 7:3) and the initial total solid contents (12%, 15%, 18%) on the co-fermentation acidification performance of FW and cardboard waste (CB). The maximum methane production was obtained when mono-fermenting FW had high solids contents(1.4 L/kg). The methane production increased and then decreased with the increasing percentages of CB. Under the conditions of FW:CB = 8:2, the maximum methane production could reach 3.4 L/kg. The lower methane production (1.8 ∼ 2.5 L/kg) with high percentages of CB (FW:CB = 7:3) was translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 26%), which indicated lower percentages of CB had a stabilization effect due to the higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. As a result, this study demonstrated new possibilities for using CB percentages to control the production of high added-value biogas in dry co-fermentation of FW.

2022 ◽  
Ritambhara Dash ◽  
Kumar Gaurav ◽  
Neha Kumari ◽  
Prashant Kumar ◽  
Saurabh Ranjan ◽  

Abstract The degradation of organic dyes determines the suitability of a photocatalyst for wastewater treatments. Metal oxides like TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3, Ce2O3, and Al-doped Ni Ferrites can degrade dyes. However, fine-tuning of physicochemical properties of the reaction system and characteristics of the reactor plays a significant role in making photocatalytic degradation a large-scale activity. The photoactivity gets altered by altering the Fe+3 ion concentration. The mechanism behind such changes has been addressed here, along with a unique magnetic property of frustrated spins observed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 196 ◽  
pp. 113689
Yong Ju ◽  
Jaemin Kim ◽  
Yeonkyung Park ◽  
Chang Yeol Lee ◽  
Kyungnam Kim ◽  

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